Largest state school 1861

Largest state school 1861 DEFAULT

University of Georgia

The University of Georgia (UGA) is the oldest, largest, and most comprehensive educational institution in Georgia. Chartered by the Georgia General Assembly in 1785, UGA was the first university in America to be created by a state government, and the principles undergirding its charter helped lay the foundation for the American system of public higher education. UGA strives for excellence in three fundamental missions: providing students with outstanding instruction in classrooms and laboratories, providing Georgia citizens with information and assistance to improve quality of life in the state, and discovering new knowledge and information through advanced research.

Reflecting  its rising academic stature, UGA placed twentieth on U.S. News and World Report’s 2015 list of the nation’s top fifty public universities. In 2003 UGA joined Harvard, Yale, and Brown universities as the only schools with recipients of Rhodes, Marshall, Truman, and Goldwater scholarships—four of the most prestigious scholarships awarded to American undergraduates. With four Rhodes scholars between 1996 and 2003, UGA had more Rhodes recipients than any state university in America during that time period.

University of Georgia Library

Situated on a 706-acre main campus, UGA has a workforce of more than 9,800, an annual budget of about $1.4 billion, and a physical plant valued at some $500 million, making it one of the largest employers in Georgia and a major contributor to the state’s economic and cultural vitality. Through its Graduate School and sixteen other schools and colleges, the university offers the widest array of academic opportunities in the state.

A rising academic reputation, the tuition-free HOPE and Zell Miller scholarships, and relatively low costs make UGA one of the nation’s most affordable and attractive public universities. Enrollment continues to rise, totalling 35,197 undergraduate and graduate students in the fall of 2014. UGA ranked fifth among public universities on U.S. News and World Report’s 2003 list of “Great Schools at Great Prices” and tenth on Kiplinger magazine’s 2015 list of the best value public colleges.

UGA is located in Athens–Clarke County, about seventy miles northeast of Atlanta. Incorporated in 1806, Athens is the educational, commercial, and cultural hub of northeast Georgia, combining southern charm with an economy fueled by service industries, medical facilities, government offices, a thriving arts and crafts community, and a lively entertainment scene. (Athens was number eight on Rolling Stone magazine’s list of “campus scenes that rock” in 2005.)

Betty Johnson Horticulture Garden

UGA is the city’s dominant economic engine, contributing some $2.1 billion in 2012 to the Athens economy through salaries, student spending, and income from thousands of visitors who attend athletic contests and other campus events. UGA-related spending accounts for more than one out of five jobs held by area residents. The university’s scientific initiatives pump millions into the economy through the construction of new facilities, recruitment of highly paid researchers, and creation of new businesses. UGA research has spawned some fifty new businesses in the Athens area, including twelve firms with more than ninety employees, who started in two university-affiliated business “incubators”—the Georgia BioBusiness Center and the Athens New Media Synergy Center.

One of UGA’s most important contributions has been fostering a culture of leadership for the state. In virtually every realm, UGA alumni have left their mark on Georgia. Augustin Smith Clayton, a member of the first graduating class in 1804, served in the U.S. Congress, and over the ensuing 200 years at least twelve graduates have served in the U.S. Senate and more than three dozen were congressmen. Between 1851 and 2011 twenty-five Georgia governors have been UGA alumni. Many graduates have served on the Georgia Supreme Court and held federal cabinet posts. Among other notable alumni are Crawford W. Long, who discovered how to use ether as an anesthetic; Henry W. Grady, a post–Civil War journalist and the voice of the New South; Charles Herty, whose chemical expertise helped create the pulp-and-paper industry in the South; Eugene Black, the first U.S. executive director of the World Bank; the southern humorist Lewis Grizzard; Zell Miller, a governor, a U.S. senator, and the father of the HOPE Scholarship; and Robert Benham, the first African American on the Georgia Supreme Court and the first to serve as chief justice.

History

Eighteenth Century

In February 1784, just after the close of the Revolutionary War, the General Assembly of Georgia earmarked 40,000 acres of land to endow “a college or seminary of learning.” The following year, Abraham Baldwin, a lawyer and minister educated at Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut, who had settled in Georgia in 1783, wrote the charter that created the University of Georgia. Reflecting the exuberance of newfound freedom sweeping through the colonies, Baldwin created a populist document that departed sharply from conventional notions about higher education. The charter asserted that an educated citizenry is essential to a free government, that government has a responsibility to see that its citizens receive an education, and that all people—not just the wealthy and privileged—have a right to education. The legislature’s approval of the charter on January 27, 1785, made UGA the first university established by a state government and provided the framework for what would become the American system of publicly supported colleges and universities.

Abraham Baldwin

Nineteenth Century

For the next sixteen years the university existed only on paper, as Georgia’s leaders, occupied with the more pressing business of creating a state, used the land designated for a college for other purposes. In 1801 interest in the university revived, and John Milledge, a lawyer and legislator, bought 633 acres along the frontier on the Oconee River and donated the land as a site for the school. Josiah Meigs, another Yale graduate, was appointed president and sole faculty member and in September 1801 taught the first university classes. The first permanent university building, a three-story brick structure, was completed in 1806 and named Franklin College in honor of Benjamin Franklin. It was the only university building until 1821, and for many years the university was commonly known as Franklin College, though its official name was the University of Georgia. As the school grew, a division for classes in the liberal arts and basic sciences emerged; the division was named the Franklin College of Arts and Sciences.

The young school struggled financially in its early years, and only the College of Arts and Sciences existed until 1859, when the School of Law was started. Closed for two years during the Civil War (1861-65), the university escaped possible bankruptcy in 1872 when it was designated a federal land-grant institution under the Morrill Act, which also tasked the university with teaching agriculture and the mechanical arts. This legislation, and later companion laws, formalized the university’s public service mission. Fort Valley State University and the University of Georgia are the only federal land grant universities in the state.

Twentieth Century

Schools of pharmacy, forestry, education, business, journalism, and home economics and a graduate school were started in the early twentieth century, and in 1918 women were admitted as regular students. The creation of the University System of Georgia in 1932 brought the university and the state’s twenty-five other public colleges together under the centralized administrative control of the Board of Regents and spun off several university branch campuses as separate institutions. The State College of Agriculture and the State Teachers College were merged with the university.

In January 1961 UGA was racially integrated when two college students from Atlanta, Hamilton Holmes and Charlayne Hunter, transferred and became the first African Americans to enroll. Later that year Mary Frances Early, an African American who was in graduate school at the University of Michigan, transferred to UGA and in 1962 received a master’s degree in music education, becoming the first African American to graduate. Holmes and Hunter (later Hunter-Gault) graduated in 1963.

UGA significantly escalated its support for research and technological innovation in the second half of the twentieth century. The veterinary medicine college was started, and a six-building science center was completed in 1960. Under UGA president Fred Davison, research income and expenditures tripled between the late 1960s and mid-1980s, as the university recruited nationally known scientists to build expertise in such areas as biotechnology, genetics, ecology, and computer development.

While strengthening research, UGA also greatly expanded its public service program, anchored for years in the Cooperative Extension Service and its agents throughout the state. The Georgia Center for Continuing Education was established in 1953, and the Marine Extension Service was created to assist the fishing and seafood industries. Specialized institutes were formed to train government and community development officials around the state, and to provide ongoing education for judges, court officials, and lawyers. The schools of social work and environmental design opened in the late 1960s.

In 1985 UGA became the first public institution of higher education in America to celebrate its bicentennial, at the same time completing its first major fund-raising drive. Nearly $400 million worth of construction was completed or started between 1987 and 1997, during the administration of UGA president Charles Knapp. East campus was opened, featuring a $37 million arts-and-music complex, a $40 million student physical activities and fitness center, and a $10 million student health center.

In the summer of 1996 UGA hosted soccer, volleyball, and rhythmic gymnastics competitions during the Olympic Games. In 1998 history and law professor Edward Larson became the first faculty member to win a Pulitzer Prize. The university’s fourteenth school—the School of Public and International Affairs—was established in 2001, and the College of Environment and Design was created by merging the Institute of Ecology (later the Eugene P. Odum School of Ecology) and School of Environmental Design.

Olympics at the University of Georgia

Twenty-first Century

Michael F. Adams was the president of the university between 1997 and 2013. He was succeeded upon his retirement by Jere W. Morehead, who had served as the university’s senior vice president for academic affairs and provost since 2010.

UGA’s programs in business, education, journalism, and public administration are highly regarded. The university’s library, with more than 3.9 million volumes, is the largest academic library in Georgia and ranks among the nation’s best research libraries, according to the Association of Research Libraries.

The faculty of 2,800 includes internationally known scholars, scientists, writers, musicians, and artists. Nine current or former UGA faculty members have been elected to the National Academy of Sciences, and two are members of the National Academy of Engineering. Eight current or former professors have been elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Twelve faculty members—with expertise ranging from X-ray crystallography to development of vaccines for combating viral infections—have been designated Eminent Scholars under the Georgia Research Alliance. In 2003 history professor Eve Troutt Powell received a MacArthur Foundation Fellowship, the first faculty member to be so honored.

UGA is home to the Georgia Writers Hall of Fame and three official state entities: the State Botanical Garden, a 313-acre preserve with specialty gardens, trails, and a conservatory; the Georgia Museum of Art, with a permanent collection of more than 9,000 works; and the Georgia Museum of Natural History, the largest collection of Georgia natural history artifacts and specimens, with more than 4.5 million items. In addition to its land grant status, UGA has been designated a sea grant college in recognition of excellence in marine research, education, and advisory services. In 2013 the university merged with the Skidaway Institute of Oceanography, a research unit of the University System of Georgia located near Savannah.

The Grady College of Journalism and Mass Communication administers the prestigious Peabody Awards, which recognize outstanding American television and radio news, entertainment, and children’s programming. UGA and Delta Air Lines annually present the Delta Prize for Global Understanding to honor individuals or groups for promoting peace and cooperation among cultures and nations. The Georgia Review, UGA’s quarterly literary journal, consistently competes with leading popular magazines for the National Magazine Award, and the University of Georgia Press is considered one of the best scholarly publishing houses in the country.

UGA Students

As  Georgia’s flagship institution, UGA’s first obligation is to educate the state’s young people, and about 82 percent of university students are Georgia residents. With its rising academic stature and moderate costs, UGA is an increasingly popular choice for high school graduates. During the 2000s freshman applications averaged 12,400 for a class of about 4,000; by 2013 applications numbered almost 20,000 for a class of 5,000.

University of Georgia Students

International enrollment is also rising; in 2014 UGA was home to more than 2,600 students from 125 different countries, up from 2,058 international students in 2003. More than 1,200 undergraduates annually participate in about eighty study-abroad programs in countries around the world, ranking UGA tenth among the twenty research universities with the most students studying abroad. UGA athletic teams won forty national championships between 1980 and 2015, and the athletic program is regularly judged among the best in the country.

With  the opening of the $43 million Miller Learning Center in fall 2003, UGA students have one of the largest and most technologically advanced study environments in the country. The 200,000-square-foot center includes computer-wired classrooms; an electronic library that seats 2,240, provides 500 computer workstations, and has more than 1,000 connections for laptop computers; and numerous study and meeting rooms. In 2012 the Richard B. Russell Building, housing the Special Collections Libraries, opened its doors. The building features a state-of-the-art subterranean vault for storing archival collections as well as reading rooms and exhibition space for the Hargrett Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Richard B. Russell Library for Political Research and Studies, and Walter J. Brown Media Archives and Peabody Awards Collection.

Miller Learning Center

Public Service

As a federal land-grant university, UGA has a mandate to make available its personnel and resources to improve life in Georgia. The public service and outreach program includes nine service units, Cooperative Extension Service faculty and staff in most of the state’s 159 counties, and formalized outreach activities in most of the university’s seventeen schools and colleges. The university annually spends more than $138 million on public service and outreach, and in 2003 service staff logged more than 1.5 million contact hours through continuing professional education activities and other programs around the state.

From its historic beginnings as a provider of practical advice to farmers and homemakers, the public service program has expanded and diversified to keep pace with economic, social, and cultural changes in the state. UGA staff members demonstrate their expertise in thousands of service fields, ranging from improving nutritional practices for low-income people, to strengthening K-12 education, to helping local governments and businesses implement new technology. The Georgia Center for Continuing Education is one of the state’s largest providers of continuing professional programs, not only through hundreds of on-campus conferences and workshops but also through distance education courses, teleconferences, Web-based learning opportunities, and WUGA, the university’s Georgia Public Broadcasting affiliate.

In keeping with UGA’s growing international presence, the public service program has expanded to other countries, with faculty providing assistance in Europe, Africa, Asia, and South America. The Office of International Public Service and Outreach provides grants that enable faculty to conduct technology, education, agriculture, food processing, and environmental conservation programs in other countries. The International Center for Democratic Governance, an arm of the Carl Vinson Institute of Government, helps emerging democracies build efficient governmental and administrative systems.

Research

With a research budget that exceeds $250 million and more than 50 specialized research centers, UGA research spans virtually every academic field. Areas of particular strength include genetics, molecular biosciences, biomedicine, chemistry, food production, information technology, business, education, and ecology and the environment. In fiscal year 2013, UGA faculty received $133.2 million in research awards, and research expenditures in fiscal year 2012 totaled $157.1 million. UGA was ranked sixty-fourth in research and development expenditures by the National Science Foundation in 2013 and is in the tenth percentile of all major research universities in research and development expenditures.

Electron Microscopy Lab, UGA

UGA has coalesced its multidisciplinary expertise to concentrate research in the fields of health science and engineering. The Biomedical and Health Sciences Institute, established in 2001, brings together dozens of scientists from many departments to focus on areas of molecular medicine, infectious disease and immunity, neuroscience, and public health. The institute is housed in a new $40 million building named for the late U.S. senator Paul Coverdell. The Paul D. Coverdell Center for Biomedical and Health Sciences, completed in 2005, is also home to the Center for Tropical and Emerging Global Diseases, a cross-disciplinary unit that focuses on diseases that have emerged from isolated areas to afflict people around the world. Another major new research facility—a $34 million home for the Complex Carbohydrate Research Center—provides space for 260 scientists and support staff who study the role of complex carbohydrates in cancer, arthritis, and other human diseases.

In 2005 the university received a three-year grant for $3.5 million from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to create the Southern Center for Communication, Health, and Poverty. The center, an interdisciplinary project of the Department of Speech Communication, the Grady College of Journalism and Mass Communication, the Terry College of Business, the Institute for Behavioral Research, and the Department of Sociology, seeks to improve health communication to the poor in the Southeast.

As part of an initiative to help meet the state’s growing need for physicians, UGA formed a partnership with Georgia Health Sciences University, based in Augusta, to establish a new campus in Athens. This collaboration came to be known as the Georgia Health Sciences/University of Georgia Medical Partnership, and in January 2012 the UGA Health Sciences Campus opened on the grounds of the former Navy Supply Corps School.

More than seventy faculty members in twenty-five departments who have expertise in specialized areas of engineering formed the College of Engineering in 2012. In addition to awarding degrees in specialized areas of engineering, the college coordinates research and works with citizens and industries to promote economic development and technologies in the state.

UGA has also emerged as a leader in the science of genetic engineering with the work of researchers who have successfully cloned pigs and calves, for instance. The Center for Applied Genetic Technologies, created in conjunction with the Georgia Research Alliance, represents a $28 million investment in such technology as transgenics, genomics, bioinformatics, and other genetic engineering technology.

AuthorLarry B. Dendy, University of Georgia

Originally published Dec 2, 2003Last edited Jun 8, 2017

Sours: https://www.georgiaencyclopedia.org/articles/education/university-of-georgia/

University of Washington

Public university in Seattle, Washington

Not to be confused with George Washington University, Washington State University, Washington University in St. Louis, or Washington College.

This article is about the university. For the Link light rail station serving the university, see University of Washington station.

University of Washington seal.svg

Former name

Territorial University of Washington (1861–1889)
MottoLux sit (Latin)[1]

Motto in English

Let there be light
TypePublicflagshipresearch university
EstablishedNovember 4, 1861; 159 years ago (November 4, 1861)
AccreditationNWCCU

Academic affiliations

Endowment$3.46 billion (2020)[2][3]
Budget$7.84 billion (FY 2019)[4]
PresidentAna Mari Cauce
ProvostMark Richards

Academic staff

5,803

Administrative staff

16,174

Total staff

34,668[5] campus & health system employees
Students47,571 (Fall 2019)[4]
Undergraduates31,041 (Fall 2019)[4]
Postgraduates16,530 (Fall 2019)[4]
Location

Seattle

,

Washington

,

United States


47°39′15″N122°18′29″W / 47.65417°N 122.30806°W / 47.65417; -122.30806Coordinates: 47°39′15″N122°18′29″W / 47.65417°N 122.30806°W / 47.65417; -122.30806
CampusUrban, 807 acres (3.3 km2) (total)
NewspaperThe Daily of the University of Washington
ColorsPurple & Gold[6]
   
NicknameHuskies

Sporting affiliations

NCAA Division I FBS – Pac-12
MascotHarry the Husky and Dubs II (live Malamute)
Websitewww.washington.edu
University of Washington signature.svg

The University of Washington (UW, simply Washington, or informally U-Dub)[7] is a publicresearch university in Seattle, Washington. Founded in 1861, Washington is one of the oldest universities on the West Coast; it was established in Seattle approximately a decade after the city's founding to aid its economic development. Today, the university's 703 acre main Seattle campus is in the University District, Puget Sound region of the Pacific Northwest. The university also has campuses in Tacoma and Bothell. Overall, UW encompasses over 500 buildings and over 20 million gross square footage of space, including one of the largest library systems in the world with more than 26 university libraries, as well as the UW Tower, lecture halls, art centers, museums, laboratories, stadiums, and conference centers. The university offers degrees through 140 departments in various colleges and schools, and functions on a quarter system.

Washington is a member of the Association of American Universities and is classified among "R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity".[8] According to the National Science Foundation, UW spent $1.41 billion on research and development in 2018, ranking it 5th in the nation.[9] As the flagship institution of the six public universities in Washington state, it is known for its medical, engineering and scientific research as well as its extremely competitive computer science, engineering, law, architecture and business school. Additionally, Washington continues to benefit from its deep historic ties and major collaborations with numerous technology giants in the region, such as Amazon, Boeing, Nintendo, and particularly Microsoft. Paul G. Allen, Bill Gates and others spent significant time at Washington computer labs for a startup venture before founding Microsoft and other ventures.[10] The UW's 22 varsity sports teams are also highly competitive, competing as the Huskies in the Pac-12 Conference of the NCAA Division I, representing the United States at the Olympic Games, and other major competitions.[11]

The university has been affiliated with many notable alumni and faculty, including 21 Nobel Prize laureates and numerous Pulitzer Prize winners, Fulbright Scholars, Rhodes Scholars and Marshall Scholars.

History[edit]

The original University building, c.1870.

Founding[edit]

In 1854, territorial governorIsaac Stevens recommended the establishment of a university in the Washington Territory. Prominent Seattle-area residents, including Methodist preacher Daniel Bagley, saw this as a chance to add to the city's potential and prestige. Bagley learned of a law that allowed United States territories to sell land to raise money in support of public schools. At the time, Arthur A. Denny, one of the founders of Seattle and a member of the territorial legislature, aimed to increase the city's importance by moving the territory's capital from Olympia to Seattle. However, Bagley eventually convinced Denny that the establishment of a university would assist more in the development of Seattle's economy. Two universities were initially chartered, but later the decision was repealed in favor of a single university in Lewis County provided that locally donated land was available. When no site emerged, Denny successfully petitioned the legislature to reconsider Seattle as a location in 1858.[12][13]

Territorial University students in 1864

In 1861, scouting began for an appropriate 10 acres (4 ha) site in Seattle to serve as a new university campus. Arthur and Mary Denny donated eight acres, while fellow pioneers Edward Lander, and Charlie and Mary Terry, donated two acres on Denny's Knoll in downtown Seattle.[14] More specifically, this tract was bounded by 4th Avenue to the west, 6th Avenue to the east, Union Street to the north, and Seneca Streets to the south.

John Pike, for whom Pike Street is named, was the university's architect and builder.[15] It was opened on November 4, 1861, as the Territorial University of Washington. The legislature passed articles incorporating the university, and establishing its Board of Regents in 1862. The school initially struggled, closing three times: in 1863 for low enrollment, and again in 1867 and 1876 due to funds shortage. Washington awarded its first graduate Clara Antoinette McCarty Wilt in 1876, with a bachelor's degree in science.

19th century relocation[edit]

By the time Washington state entered the Union in 1889, both Seattle and the university had grown substantially. Washington's total undergraduate enrollment increased from 30 to nearly 300 students, and the campus's relative isolation in downtown Seattle faced encroaching development. A special legislative committee, headed by UW graduate Edmond Meany, was created to find a new campus to better serve the growing student population and faculty. The committee eventually selected a site on the northeast of downtown Seattle called Union Bay, which was the land of the Duwamish, and the legislature appropriated funds for its purchase and construction. In 1895, the university relocated to the new campus by moving into the newly built Denny Hall. The University Regents tried and failed to sell the old campus, eventually settling with leasing the area. This would later become one of the university's most valuable pieces of real estate in modern-day Seattle, generating millions in annual revenue with what is now called the Metropolitan Tract. The original Territorial University building was torn down in 1908, and its former site now houses the Fairmont Olympic Hotel.

The sole-surviving remnants of Washington's first building are four 24-foot (7.3 m), white, hand-fluted cedar, Ionic columns. They were salvaged by Edmond S. Meany, one of the university's first graduates and former head of its history department. Meany and his colleague, Dean Herbert T. Condon, dubbed the columns as "Loyalty," "Industry," "Faith", and "Efficiency", or "LIFE." The columns now stand in the Sylvan Grove Theater.[16]

Alaska-Yukon-Pacific Exposition on the UW campus toward Mount Rainierin 1909

20th century expansion[edit]

Organizers of the 1909 Alaska-Yukon-Pacific Exposition eyed the still largely undeveloped campus as a prime setting for their world's fair. They came to an agreement with Washington's Board of Regents that allowed them to use the campus grounds for the exposition, surrounding today's Drumheller Fountain facing towards Mount Rainier. In exchange, organizers agreed Washington would take over the campus and its development after the fair's conclusion. This arrangement led to a detailed site plan and several new buildings, prepared in part by John Charles Olmsted. The plan was later incorporated into the overall UW campus master plan, permanently affecting the campus layout.

Geyser Basin at the University of Washington, 1919

Both World Wars brought the military to campus, with certain facilities temporarily lent to the federal government. In spite of this, subsequent post-war periods were times of dramatic growth for the university.[17] The period between the wars saw a significant expansion of the upper campus. Construction of the Liberal Arts Quadrangle, known to students as "The Quad," began in 1916 and continued to 1939. The university's architectural centerpiece, Suzzallo Library, was built in 1926 and expanded in 1935.

After World War II, further growth came with the G.I. Bill. Among the most important developments of this period was the opening of the School of Medicine in 1946, which is now consistently ranked as the top medical school in the United States. It would eventually lead to the University of Washington Medical Center, ranked by U.S. News and World Report as one of the top ten hospitals in the nation.

Aerial view of campus, circa 1922.

In 1942, all persons of Japanese ancestry in the Seattle area were forced into inland internment camps as part of Executive Order 9066 following the attack on Pearl Harbor. During this difficult time, university president Lee Paul Sieg took an active and sympathetic leadership role in advocating for and facilitating the transfer of Japanese American students to universities and colleges away from the Pacific Coast to help them avoid the mass incarceration.[18] Nevertheless, many Japanese American students and "soon-to-be" graduates were unable to transfer successfully in the short time window or receive diplomas before being incarcerated. It was only many years later that they would be recognized for their accomplishments, during the University of Washington's Long Journey Home ceremonial event that was held in May 2008.

From 1958 to 1973, the University of Washington saw a tremendous growth in student enrollment, its faculties and operating budget, and also its prestige under the leadership of Charles Odegaard. UW student enrollment had more than doubled to 34,000 as the baby boom generation came of age. However, this era was also marked by high levels of student activism, as was the case at many American universities. Much of the unrest focused around civil rights and opposition to the Vietnam War.[19][20] In response to anti-Vietnam War protests by the late 1960s, the University Safety and Security Division became the University of Washington Police Department.[21]

Odegaard instituted a vision of building a "community of scholars", convincing the Washington State legislatures to increase investment in the university. Washington senators, such as Henry M. Jackson and Warren G. Magnuson, also used their political clout to gather research funds for UW. The results included an increase in the operating budget from $37 million in 1958 to over $400 million in 1973, solidifying UW as a top recipient of federal research funds in the United States. The establishment of technology giants such as Microsoft, Boeing and Amazon in the local area also proved to be highly influential in the UW's fortunes, not only improving graduate prospects[22][23] but also helping to attract millions of dollars in university and research funding through its distinguished faculty and extensive alumni network.[24]

21st century[edit]

In 1990, the University of Washington opened its additional campuses in Bothell and Tacoma. Although originally intended for students who have already completed two years of higher education, both schools have since become four-year universities with the authority to grant degrees. The first freshman classes at these campuses started in fall 2006. Today both Bothell and Tacoma also offer a selection of master's degree programs.

In 2012, the university began exploring plans and governmental approval to expand the main Seattle campus, including significant increases in student housing, teaching facilities for the growing student body and faculty, as well as expanded public transit options. The University of Washington light rail station was completed in March 2015,[25] connecting Seattle's Capitol Hill neighborhood to the UW Husky Stadium within five minutes of rail travel time.[26] It offers a previously unavailable option of transportation into and out of the campus, designed specifically to reduce dependence on private vehicles, bicycles and local King County buses.

Campus[edit]

Main article: Campus of the University of Washington

UW's main campus is situated in Seattle, by the shores of Union and Portage Bays with views of the Cascade Range to the east, and the Olympic Mountains to the west. The site encompasses 703 acres (2.84 km2) bounded by N.E. 45th Street on the north, N.E. Pacific Street on the south, Montlake Boulevard N.E. on the east, and 15th Avenue N.E. on the west.

Red Square is the heart of the campus, surrounded by landmark buildings and artworks, such as Suzzallo Library, the Broken Obelisk, and the statue of George Washington. It functions as the central hub for students and hosts a variety of events annually. University Way, known locally as "The Ave", lies nearby and is a focus for much student life at the university.

North Campus[edit]

North Campus features some of UW's most recognized landscapes as well as landmarks, stretching from the signature University of Washington Quad directly north of Red Square to N.E. 45th Street,[27] and encompasses a number of the university's most historical academic, research, housing, parking, recreational and administrative buildings. With UW's continued growth, administrators proposed a new, multimillion-dollar, multi-phase development plan in late 2014 to refine portions of the North Campus, renovating and replacing old student housing with new LEED-certified complexes, introducing new academic facilities, sports fields, open greenery, and museums.[28][29] The UW Foster School of Business, School of Law, and the Burke Museum of Natural History and Culture, which houses a significant number of exhibits including a 66-million-year-old Tyrannosaurus rex fossil skull – one of only 15 known to exist in the world today and part of an ongoing excavation, are also located in North Campus.[30][31][32]

South Campus[edit]

South Campus occupies the land between Pacific Street and the Lake Washington Ship Canal. The land was previously the site of the University Golf Course but was given up to construct a building for the School of Medicine.[33] Today, South Campus is the location of UW's health sciences and natural sciences facilities, including the UW Medical Center and the Magnuson Health Sciences Center as well as locations for instruction and research in oceanography, bioengineering, biology, genome sciences, hydraulics, and comparative medicine. In 2019, the Bill & Melinda Gates Center For Computer Science & Engineering opened in South Campus.

East Campus[edit]

The East Campus area stretches east of Montlake Boulevard to Laurelhurst and is largely taken up by wetlands and Huskies sports facilities and recreation fields, including Husky Stadium, Hec Edmundson Pavilion, and Husky Ballpark. While the area directly north of the sports facilities is home to UW's computer science and engineering programs, which includes computer labs once used by Paul G. Allen and Bill Gates for their prior venture before establishing Microsoft,[10] the area northeast of the sports facilities is occupied by components of the UW Botanic Gardens, such as the Union Bay Natural Area, the UW Farm, and the Center for Urban Horticulture. Further east is the Ceramic and Metal Arts Building and Laurel Village, which provides family housing for registered full-time students. East Campus is also the location of the UW light rail station.

West Campus[edit]

West Campus consists of mainly modernist structures located on city streets, and stretches between 15th Avenue and Interstate 5 from the Ship Canal, to N.E. 41st Street. It is home to the College of Built Environments, School of Social Work, Fishery Sciences Building, UW Police Department as well as many of the university's residence halls and apartments, such as Stevens Court, Mercer Court, Alder Hall, and Elm Hall.

Organization and administration[edit]

See also: President of the University of Washington

The Gothic-revival Gerberding Hallhouses offices, including that of the President and Provost.

Governance[edit]

University of Washington's President Ana Mari Cauce was selected by the Board of Regents, effective October 13, 2015.[34] On November 12, 2015, the Board of Regents approved a five-year contract for Cauce, awarding her yearly compensation of $910,000. Cauce's compensation package includes an annual salary of $697,500, $150,000 per year in deferred compensation, an annual $50,500 contribution into a retirement account, and a $12,000 annual automobile allowance.[35] She was the Interim President before her appointment, fulfilling the position left vacant by the previous President Michael K. Young when he was announced to be Texas A&M University's next President on February 3, 2015.Phyllis Wise, who had served at UW as Provost and Executive Vice President, and as Interim President for a year, was named the Chancellor of the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign in August 2011.[37]

The university is governed by ten Regents, one of whom is a student. Its most notable former regent is likely William H. Gates, Sr., the father of Bill Gates. The undergraduate student government is the Associated Students of the University of Washington (ASUW) and the graduate student government is the Graduate and Professional Student Senate (GPSS).

Finances[edit]

In 2017 the university reported $4.893 billion in revenues and $5.666 billion in expenses, resulting in an operating loss of $774 million. This loss was offset by $342 million in state appropriations, $443 million in investment income, $166 million in gifts, and $185 million of other non-operating revenues.[38] Thus, the university's net position increased by $363 million in 2017.[38]

Endowment[edit]

Endowed gifts are commingled in the university's Consolidated Endowment Fund, managed by an internal investment company at an annual cost of approximately $6.2 million.[38] The university reported $443.383 million of investment income in fiscal year 2017.[38] As of 31 December 2017[update] the value of the CEF was $3.361 billion, with $686 million in Emerging Markets Equity, $1.235 billion in Developed Markets Equity, $383 million in Private Equity, $185 million in Real Assets, $54 million in Opportunistic, $535 million in Absolute Return, and $283 million in Fixed Income.[39]

Major projects[edit]

Major recent spending includes $131 million on the UW Animal Research and Care Facility, $72 million on the Nano-engineering and Sciences Building, $61 million building on the Workday HR & Payroll System, $50 million on the Denny Hall Renovation, $44 million on the West Campus Utility Plant, $26 million on the UW Medical Center Expansion Phase 2, $25 million on the UW Tacoma Urban Solutions Center, and $21 million on the UW Police Department.[38] The initial contract for Workday was for $27 million, so the total $61 million cost represents a $34 million cost overrun.[40] As of 28 April 2018[update], the university has nearly $1 billion in new construction underway.[41]

Sustainability[edit]

Environmental sustainability has long been a major focus of the university's Board of Regents and Presidents. In February 2006, the UW joined a partnership with Seattle City Light as part of their Green Up Program, ensuring that all of Seattle campus' electricity is supplied by and purchased from renewable sources.[42] In 2010, then UW President Emmert furthered the university's efforts with a host of other universities across the U.S., and signed the American College & University Presidents' Climate Commitment.[43] UW created a Climate Action Team,[44] as well as an Environmental Stewardship Advisory Committee (ESAC) which keeps track of UW's greenhouse gas emissions and carbon footprint.[45] Policies were enacted with environmental stewardship in mind, and institutional support was provided to assist with campus sustainability.[46]

Additionally, UW's Student Housing and Food Services (HFS) office has dedicated several million dollars annually towards locally produced, organic, and natural foods. HFS also ceased the use of foam food containers on-campus, and instead opted for compostable cups, plates, utensils, and packaging whenever possible. New residence halls planned for 2020 are also expected to meet silver or gold LEED standards.[47] Overall, the University of Washington was one of several universities to receive the highest grade, "A-", on the Sustainable Endowments Institute's College Sustainability Report Card in 2011.[48] The university was one of 15 Overall College Sustainability Leaders, among the 300 institutions surveyed.[49]

Academics and research[edit]

The university offers bachelor's, master's and doctoral degrees through its 140 departments, themselves organized into various colleges and schools.[50] It also continues to operate a Transition School and Early Entrance Program on campus, which first began in 1977.[51]

Rankings and reputation[edit]

National Program Rankings[61]
Program Ranking
Audiology36
Biological Sciences23
Business20
Chemistry24
Clinical Psychology5
Computer Science6
Earth Sciences10
Economics35
Education14
Engineering24
English35
Fine Arts32
Health Care Management15
History23
Law42
Library & Information Studies2
Mathematics26
Medical: Primary Care2
Medical: Research13
Nursing: Doctorate1
Nursing: Masters6
Nursing: Midwifery8
Occupational Therapy23
Pharmacy7
Physical Therapy25
Physician Assistant14
Physics22
Political Science33
Psychology26
Public Affairs6
Public Health7
Social Work3
Sociology17
Speech-Language Pathology10
Statistics3
Global Subject Rankings[62]
Program Ranking
Arts & Humanities80
Biology & Biochemistry17
Biotechnology & Applied Microbiology20
Cardiac & Cardiovascular Systems12
Cell Biology22
Chemistry78
Clinical Medicine6
Computer Science9
Economics & Business42
Electrical & Electronic Engineering130
Endocrinology & Metabolism20
Energy & Fuels43
Engineering97
Environment/Ecology12
Geosciences5
Immunology6
Infectious Diseases6
Materials Science26
Mathematics22
Microbiology8
Molecular Biology & Genetics6
Nanoscience & Nanotechnology26
Neuroscience & Behavior22
Oncology13
Pharmacology & Toxicology8
Physics17
Plant & Animal Science41
Psychiatry/Psychology29
Social Sciences & Public Health7
Space Science35
Surgery6

UW has been listed as a "Public Ivy" in Greene's Guides since 2001,[63] and is an elected member of the American Association of Universities.[64] Among the faculty by 2012, there have been 151 members of American Association for the Advancement of Science, 68 members of the National Academy of Sciences, 67 members of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 53 members of the Institute of Medicine, 29 winners of the Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers, 21 members of the National Academy of Engineering, 15 Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigators, 15 MacArthur Fellows, 9 winners of the Gairdner Foundation International Award, 5 winners of the National Medal of Science, 7 Nobel Prize laureates, 5 winners of Albert Lasker Award for Clinical Medical Research, 4 members of the American Philosophical Society, 2 winners of the National Book Award, 2 winners of the National Medal of Arts, 2 Pulitzer Prize winners, 1 winner of the Fields Medal, and 1 member of the National Academy of Public Administration.[65][66][67] Among UW students by 2012, there were 136 Fulbright Scholars, 35 Rhodes Scholars, 7 Marshall Scholars and 4 Gates Cambridge Scholars.[68] UW is recognized as a top producer of Fulbright Scholars, ranking 2nd in the US in 2017.[69]

The Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU) has consistently ranked UW as one of the top 20 universities worldwide every year since its first release.[70] In 2019, UW ranked 14th worldwide out of 500 by the ARWU, 26th worldwide out of 981 in the Times Higher Education World University Rankings, and 28th worldwide out of 101 in the TimesWorld Reputation Rankings.[71] Meanwhile, QS World University Rankings ranked it 68th worldwide, out of over 900.[72]

U.S. News & World Report ranked UW 8th out of nearly 1,500 universities worldwide for 2021, with UW's undergraduate program tied for 58th among 389 national universities in the U.S. and tied for 19th among 209 public universities.[73]

In 2019, it ranked 10th among the universities around the world by SCImago Institutions Rankings.[74] In 2017, the Leiden Ranking, which focuses on science and the impact of scientific publications among the world's 500 major universities, ranked UW 12th globally and 5th in the U.S.[75][76]

In 2019, Kiplinger magazine's review of "top college values" named UW 5th for in-state students and 10th for out-of-state students among U.S. public colleges, and 84th overall out of 500 schools.[77] In the Washington Monthly National University Rankings UW was ranked 15th domestically in 2018, based on its contribution to the public good as measured by social mobility, research, and promoting public service.[78]

In 2021, the Advanced Robotics for Manufacturing Institute recognized the Mechanical Engineering BS and MS programs with an endorsement for their commitment to preparing workers for careers in Industry 4.0.[79]

Admissions[edit]

The university's undergraduate admissions process is rated 91/99 by the Princeton Review meaning highly selective,[80][81] and is classified "more selective" by the U.S. News & World Report.[82] For Fall 2019, 23,606 (51.8%) were accepted out of 45,584 applications.[83] Among the 6,984 admitted freshman students who then officially enrolled for Fall 2019, the middle 50% of SAT scores ranged from 1240 to 1440, out of 1600. More specifically, the middle 50% ranged from 600 to 700 for evidence-based reading and writing, and 620–770 for math.[84][85]ACT composite scores for the middle 50% ranged from 27 to 33, out of 36.[84] The middle 50% of admitted GPA ranged from 3.72 to 3.95, out of 4.0.[83]

The university uses capacity constrained majors,[86] a gate-keeping process that requires most students to apply to an internal college or faculty. New applications are usually considered once or twice annually, and few students are admitted each time.[87] The screening process is often stringent, largely being based on cumulative academic performance, recommendation letters and extracurricular activities.[88] Capacity constrained majors have been criticized for delaying graduation and forcing good students to reroute their education.[89]

Research[edit]

UW's research budget consistently ranks among the top 5 in both public and private universities in the United States.[90][91] It surpassed the $1.0 billion research budget milestone in 2012,[92] and university endowments reached almost $3.0 billion by 2016.[93] UW is the largest recipient of federal research funding among public universities, and currently ranks top 2nd among all public and private universities in the nation.[94]

In 2014, the University of Washington School of Oceanography and the UW Applied Physics Laboratory completed the construction of the first high-power underwater cabled observatory in the United States.

To promote equal academic opportunity, especially for people of low income, UW launched Husky Promise in 2006. Families of income up to 65 percent of state median income or 235 percent of the federal poverty level are eligible. With this, up to 30 percent of undergraduate students may be eligible. The cut-off income level that UW set is the highest in the nation, making top-quality education available to more people. Then UW President, Mark Emmert, simply said that being "elitist is not in our DNA".[96] "Last year, the University of Washington moved to a more comprehensive approach [to admissions], in which the admissions staff reads the entire application and looks at grades within the context of the individual high school, rather than relying on computerized cutoffs."[97]

UW was the host university of ResearchChannel program (now defunct), the only TV channel in the United States dedicated solely for the dissemination of research from academic institutions and research organizations.[98] Participation of ResearchChannel included 36 universities, 15 research organizations, two corporate research centers and many other affiliates.[99]

Alan Michelson, now Head of the Built Environments Library at UW Seattle, manages the Pacific Coast Architecture Database (PCAD), which Michelson started in 2002 while he worked as Architecture and Design Librarian at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). The PCAD serves as a searchable public database detailing significant but importantly, also lesser-known and -lauded designers, buildings and structures, and partnerships, with links including to bibliographic literature.[100]

In 2019, iDefense reported that Chinese hackers had launched cyberattacks on dozens of academic institutions in an attempt to gain information on technology being developed for the United States Navy.[101] Some of the targets included the University of Washington.[101] The attacks have been underway since at least April 2017.[101]

Student life[edit]

University of Washington had 47,571 total enrollments as of Autumn 2019, making it the largest university on the west coast by student population in spite of its selective admissions process.[104] It also boasts one of the most diverse student bodies within the US, with more than 50% of its undergraduate students self-identifying with minority groups.[105][106][107][108]

Organizations[edit]

Registered groups[edit]

The University of Washington boasts over 800 active Registered Student Organizations (RSOs), one of the largest networks of any universities in the world. RSOs are dedicated to a wide variety of interests both in and beyond campus. Some of these interest areas include academic focus groups, cultural exchanges, environmental activities, Greek life, political/social action, religious discussions, sports, international student gatherings by country, and STEM-specific events. Prominent examples are:

  • The Dream Project: "The Dream Project teaches UW students to mentor first-generation and low-income students in King County high schools as they navigate the complex college admissions process."[109]
  • The Rural Health Education (RHE): Promotes health in rural areas of Washington state through health fairs. Volunteers include students from a variety of backgrounds including medical, pharmacy, and dentistry. Health professionals from the Greater Seattle area also actively participate.
  • Students Expressing Environmental Concern (SEED): partially funded by UW's Housing and Food Services (HFS) office to promote environmental sustainability, and reduce the university's carbon footprint.
  • Student Philanthropy Education Program: Partnered with the UW's nonprofit, the UW Foundation, this group focuses on promoting awareness of philanthropy's importance through major events on campus.
  • Husky Global Affairs: This is a club dedicated to social science research in global issues. It provides a forum for students to collaborate in research and publishes their research in the Global Affairs Journal.
  • UW Delta Delta Sigma Pre-Dental Society (DDS): This is a club dedicated to serving pre-dental students and it provides a forum for discussion of dental-related topics.[110]
  • UW Earth Club: The Earth Club is interested in promoting the expression of environmental attitudes and consciousness through specialized events.
  • UW Farm: The UW farm grows crops on campus and advocates urban farming in the UW community.
  • GlobeMed at UW: a student-run non-profit organization that works to educate about global poverty and its effect on health. The UW chapter is a part of a national network of chapters, each partnering with a grassroots organization at home or abroad. GlobeMed at UW is partnered with The MINDS Foundation which supports education about and treatment for mental illness in rural India.
  • UW Sierra Student Coalition: SSC is dedicated to many larger environmental issues on campus and providing related opportunities to students.
  • Washington Public Interest Research Group (WashPIRG): WashPIRG engages students in a variety of activist causes, including environmental projects on campus and the community.[111]
UW Tower, a conference space and administrative building.

Student government[edit]

Main article: Associated Students of the University of Washington

The Associated Students of the University of Washington (ASUW) is one of two Student Governments at the University of Washington, the other being the Graduate and Professional Student Senate. It is funded and supported by student fees, and provides services that directly and indirectly benefit them. The ASUW employs over 72 current University of Washington students, has over 500 volunteers, and spends $1.03 million annually to provide services and activities to the student body of 43,000 on-campus.[112] The Student Senate was established in 1994 as a division of the Associated Students of the University of Washington. Student Senate is one of two official student governed bodies and provides a broad-based discussion of issues. Currently, the ASUW Student Senate has a legislative body of over 150 senators representing a diverse set of interests on and off-campus.[113]

The ASUW was incorporated in the State of Washington on April 20, 1906.[114] On April 30, 1932, the ASUW assisted in the incorporation of University Book Store[115] which has been in continuous operation at the same location on University Way for over 70 years. The ASUW Experimental College, part of the ASUW, was created in 1968 by several University of Washington students seeking to provide the campus and surrounding community with a selection of classes not offered on the university curriculum.[116]

Publication[edit]

Main article: The Daily of the University of Washington

The student newspaper is The Daily of the University of Washington, usually referred to as The Daily. It is the second-largest[clarification needed] daily paper in Seattle. The Daily is published every day classes are in session during fall, winter and spring quarters, and weekly during summer quarters. In 2010, The Daily launched a half-hour weekly television magazine show, "The Daily's Double Shot," on UWTV Channel 27. The UW continues to use its proprietary UWTV channel, online and printed publications.[117] The faculty also produce their own publications for students and alumni.

Student Activism[edit]

Throughout the 20th Century, UW student activism centered around a variety of national and international concerns, from nuclear energy to the Vietnam War and civil rights. In 1948, at the beginning of the McCarthyism era, students brought their activism to bear on campus, by protesting the firing of three UW professors accused of communist affiliations.[118][119]

University support[edit]

UW offers many services for its students and alumni, beyond the standard offered by most colleges and universities. Its "Student Life" division houses 16 departments and offices that serve students directly and indirectly, including those below and overseen by Vice President and Vice Provost.

  • Career Center
  • Counseling Center
  • Department of Recreational Sports (IMA)
  • Disability Resource Center
  • Fraternity and Sorority Life
  • Health and Wellness Programs
  • Housing and Food Services
  • Office of Ceremonies
  • Office of the University Registrar
  • Student Admissions
  • Student Activities and Union Facilities
  • Student Financial Aid
  • Student Legal Services
  • Student Publications (The Daily)
  • Campus Police[120]

Housing[edit]

Main article: Housing at the University of Washington

The university operates one of the largest campuses of any higher education institution in the world. Despite this, growing faculty and student count has strained the regional housing supply as well as transportation facilities. Starting in 2012, UW began taking active measures to explore, plan and enact a series of campus policies to manage the annual growth. In addition to new buildings, parking and light rail stations, new building construction and renovations have been scheduled to take place through 2020.[121] The plan includes the construction of three six-story residence halls and two apartment complexes in the west section of campus, near the existing Terry and Lander Halls, in Phase I, the renovation of six existing residence halls in Phase II, and additional new construction in Phase III. The projects will result in a net gain of approximately 2,400 beds. The Residence Hall Student Association (student government for the halls) is the second-largest student organization on campus and helps plan fun events in the halls. For students, faculty, and staff looking to live off-campus, they may also explore Off-Campus Housing Affairs.[122]

The Greek System at UW has also been a prominent part of student culture for more than 115 years. It is made up of two organizational bodies, the Interfraternity Council (IFC) and the Panhellenic Association. The IFC looks over 34 fraternities with 1900+ members and Panhellenic consists of 19 sororities and 1900 members. The school has additional Greek organizations that do not offer housing and are primarily special interest.

Disability resources[edit]

In addition to the University of Washington's Disability Resources for Students (DRS) office, there is also a campus-wide DO-IT (Disabilities, Opportunities, Internetworking, and Technology) Center program that assists educational institutions to fully integrate all students, including those with disabilities, into academic life. DO-IT includes a variety of initiatives, such as the DO-IT Scholars Program, and provides information on the 'universal' design of educational facilities for students of all levels of physical and mental ability.[123] These design programs aim to reduce systemic barriers which could otherwise hinder the performance of some students, and may also be applied to other professional organizations and conferences.[124]

Athletics[edit]

Main article: Washington Huskies

UW students, sports teams, and alumni are called Washington Huskies, and often referred to metonymically as "Montlake," due to the campus's location on Montlake Boulevard N.E.[125] (although the traditional bounds of the Montlake neighborhood do not extend north of the Montlake Cut to include the campus.) The husky was selected as the school mascot by the student committee in 1922, which replaced the "Sun Dodger", an abstract reference to the local weather.

The university participates in the National Collegiate Athletic Association's Division I-A, and the Pac-12 Conference. The football team is traditionally competitive, having won the 1960 and 1991 national title, to go along with eight Rose Bowl victories and an Orange Bowl title. From 1907 to 1917, Washington football teams were unbeaten in 64 consecutive games, an NCAA record.[126]Tailgating by boat has been a Husky Stadium tradition since 1920 when the stadium was first built on the shores of Lake Washington. The Apple Cup game is an annual game against cross-state rival Washington State University that was first contested in 1900 with UW leading the all-time series, 65 wins to 31 losses and 6 ties. College Football Hall of Fame member Don James is a former head coach.

The men's basketball team has been moderately successful, though recently the team has enjoyed a resurgence under coach Lorenzo Romar. With Romar as head coach, the team has been to six NCAA tournaments (2003–2004, 2004–2005, 2005–2006, 2008–2009, 2009–2010 and 2010–2011 seasons), 2 consecutive top 16 (sweet sixteen) appearances, and secured a No. 1 seed in 2005. On December 23, 2005, the men's basketball team won their 800th victory in Hec Edmundson Pavilion, the most wins for any NCAA team in its current arena.

Rowing is a longstanding tradition at the University of Washington dating back to 1901. The Washington men's crew gained international prominence by winning the gold medal at the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin, defeating the German and Italian crews much to the dismay of Adolf Hitler who was in attendance.[127] In 1958, the men's crew deepened their legend with a shocking win over Leningrad Trud's world champion rowers at the Moscow Cup, resulting in the first American sporting victory on Soviet soil,[128][129] and certainly the first time a Russian crowd gave any American team a standing ovation during the Cold War.[130] The men's crew have won 46 national titles[131] (15 Intercollegiate Rowing Association, 1 National Collegiate Rowing Championship), 15 Olympic gold medals, two silver and five bronze. The women have 10 national titles and two Olympic gold medals. In 1997, the women's team won the NCAA championship.[131] The Husky men are the 2015 national champions.

Recent national champions include the softball team (2009), the men's rowing team (2015, 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2009, 2007), NCAA Division I women's cross country team (2008), and the women's volleyball team (2005). Individually, Scott Roth was the 2011 NCAA men's Outdoor Pole Vault and 2011 & 2010 NCAA men's Indoor Pole Vault champion. James Lepp was the 2005 NCAA men's golf champion. Ryan Brown (men's 800 meters) and Amy Lia (women's 1500 meters) won individual titles at the 2006 NCAA Track and Field Championships. Brad Walker was the 2005 NCAA men's Outdoor and Indoor Pole Vault champion.

The university has an extensive series of sports facilities, including but not limited to the Husky Stadium (football, track and field), the Alaska Airlines Arena at Hec Edmundson Pavilion (basketball, volleyball, and gymnastics), Husky Ballpark (baseball), Husky Softball Stadium, The Bill Quillian Tennis Stadium, The Nordstrom Tennis Center, Dempsey Indoor (Indoor track and field, football) and the Conibear Shellhouse (rowing). The golf team plays at the Washington National Golf Club and until recently, the swimming team called the Weyerhaeuser Aquatic Center and the Husky pool home. The university discontinued its men's and women's swim teams on May 1, 2009, due to budget cuts.[132]

Husky Stadium[edit]

Main article: Husky Stadium

The rebuilt Husky Stadium is the first and primary source of income for the completely remodeled athletic district. The major remodel consisted of a new grand concourse, underground light-rail station which opened on March 19, 2016,[133] an enclosed west end design, replacement of bleachers with individual seating, removal of track and Huskytron, as well as the installation of a new press box section, private box seating, football offices, permanent seating in the east end zone that does not block the view of Lake Washington. The project also included new and improved amenities, concession stands, and bathrooms throughout. The cost for renovating the stadium was around $280 million and was designed for a slightly lower seating capacity than its previous design, now at 70,138 seats.

Besides hosting national and regional football games, the Husky Stadium is also used by the university for its annual Commencement event, departmental ceremonies, and other events. Husky Stadium is one of several places that may have been the birthplace of the crowd phenomenon known as "The Wave". It is claimed that the wave was invented by Husky graduate Robb Weller and UW band director Bill Bissel in October 1981, for an afternoon game facing opponents from Stanford University.

Mascot[edit]

Main article: Harry the Husky

The costumed mascot, Harry the Husky, at a basketball game.
1930 football ticket stub depicting the UW Husky mascot

The University of Washington's costumed mascot is Harry the Husky. "Harry the Husky" performs at sporting and special events, and a live Alaskan Malamute, currently named Dubs II,[134] has traditionally led the UW football team onto the field at the start of games. The school colors of purple and gold were adopted in 1892 by student vote. The choice was inspired by the first stanza of Lord Byron's The Destruction of Sennacherib:[135][136]

     The Assyrian came down like the wolf on the fold,
     And his cohorts were gleaming in purple and gold;
     And the sheen of their spears was like stars on the sea,
     When the blue wave rolls nightly on deep Galilee.

Additionally, the university has also hosted a long line of Alaskan Malamutes as mascots.[137]

School songs[edit]

The University of Washington Husky Marching Band performs at many Husky sporting events including all football games. The band was founded in 1929, and today it is a cornerstone of Husky spirit. The band marches using a traditional high step, and it is one of only a few marching bands left in the United States to do so. Like many college bands, the Husky band has several traditional songs that it has played for decades, including the official fight songs "Bow Down to Washington" and "Tequila", as well as fan-favorite "Africano".

Notable alumni and faculty[edit]

For a more comprehensive list, see List of University of Washington people.

    Notable alumni of the University of Washington include U.S. Olympic rower Joe Rantz (1936); architect Minoru Yamasaki (1934); news anchor and Big Sky resort founder Chet Huntley (1934); US Senator Henry M. Jackson (JD 1935); Baskin Robbins co-founder Irv Robbins (1939); former actor, The Hollywood Reporter columnist and TCM host Robert Osborne (1954); glass artist Dale Chihuly (BA 1965); serial killerTed Bundy; Nobel Prize-winning biologist Linda B. Buck; Pulitzer Prize-winning author Marilynne Robinson (PhD 1977), martial artist Bruce Lee; saxophonist Kenny G (1978); MySpace co-founder Chris DeWolfe (1988); Mudhoney lead vocalist Mark Arm (1985, English);[138]Soundgarden guitarist Kim Thayil (Philosophy);[139] music manager Susan Silver (Chinese);[140] actor Rainn Wilson (BA, Drama 1986); radio and TV personality Andrew Harms (2001, Business and Drama); actor and comedian Joel McHale (1995, MFA 2000), actor and Christian personality Jim Caviezel and basketball player Matisse Thybulle.

    In film[edit]

    • 1965: The Slender Thread, directed by Sydney Pollack
    • 1979: The Changeling, directed by Peter Medak[141]
    • 1983: WarGames, directed by John Badham[142]
    • 1987: Black Widow, directed by Bob Rafelson[143]
    • 1992: Singles, directed by Cameron Crowe[144]
    • 1997: The Sixth Man, directed by Randall Miller[145]
    • 1999: 10 Things I Hate About You, directed by Gil Junger[146]
    • 2004: What the Bleep Do We Know: Down the Rabbit Hole, directed by William Arntz[147]
    • 2007: Dan in Real Life, directed by Peter Hedges[148]
    • 2013: 21 and Over, directed by Jon Lucas[149]
    • 2016: The Boys of 36, directed by Margaret Grossi

    See also[edit]

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    37. ^ abcde"2017 Bondholder Report"(PDF). Archived(PDF) from the original on May 11, 2018.
    38. ^
    Sours: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/University_of_Washington
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    Under a Simple Oak Tree

    The year was 1861. The American Civil War had shortly begun and the Union Army held control of Fort Monroe in Hampton, Virginia at the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay. In May of that year, Union Major General Benjamin Butler decreed that any escaping slaves reaching Union lines would be considered "contraband of war" and would not be returned to bondage. This resulted in waves of enslaved people rushing to the fort in search of freedom. A camp to house the newly freed slaves was built several miles outside the protective walls of Fort Monroe. It was named "The Grand Contraband Camp" and functioned as the United States' first self-contained African American community.

    In order to provide the masses of refugees some kind of education, Mary Peake, a free Negro, was asked to teach, even though an 1831 Virginia law forbid the education of slaves, free blacks and mulattos. She held her first class, which consisted of about twenty students, on September 17, 1861 under a simple oak tree. This tree would later be known as the Emancipation Oak and would become the site of the first Southern reading of the Emancipation Proclamation in 1863. Today, the Emancipation Oak still stands on the Hampton University campus as a lasting symbol of the promise of education for all, even in the face of adversity.


    The Hampton Normal School

    In 1863, using government funds to continue the work started by Mary Peake, General Butler founded the Butler School for Negro children, where students were taught reading, writing, arithmetic, geography, and grammar, as well as various housekeeping skills.

    Brigadier General Samuel Armstrong was appointed in 1866 to Superintendent of the Freedmen's Bureau of the Ninth District of Virginia. Drawing upon his experiences with mission schools in Hawaii, he procured funding from the American Missionary Association to establish a school on the Wood Farm, also known as "Little Scotland" adjacent to the Butler School. On April 1, 1868, Armstrong opened Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute with a simple declared purpose.

    "The thing to be done was clear: to train selected Negro youth who should go out and teach and lead their people first by example, by getting land and homes; to give them not a dollar that they could earn for themselves; to teach respect for labor, to replace stupid drudgery with skilled hands, and in this way to build up an industrial system for the sake not only of self-support and intelligent labor, but also for the sake of character."

    Practical experience in trades and industrial skills were emphasized and students were able to pay their way through school by working in various jobs throughout the burgeoning campus. The Butler School, which was succeeded in 1889 by the Whittier School, was used as a practice ground for teaching students of the Hampton Normal School.


    A New Student

    By 1872, Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute was flourishing and drawing students from all over the country. One day that year, a young man met with the assistant principal to request admission. His clothing and person were so unkempt from his long journey he was nearly turned away. The assistant principal asked him to sweep the recitation room. The young man, excited at the prospect of work, not only swept the floor three times but thoroughly dusted the room four times, thereby passing a rigorous "white glove" inspection. Upon seeing the results of his work, the assistant principal said quietly, "I guess you will do to enter this institution."

    The newly accepted student was Booker T. Washington, who would become Hampton's most distinguished graduate. At only 25 years old, at the request of General Armstrong, Washington helped found Tuskegee Institute in Alabama in 1881.


    Native Americans Arrive

    During the night of April 18, 1878, a group of Native Americans arrived in Hampton from Fort Sill, where they had been imprisoned at the close of the Red River War. No longer considered dangerous, they were sent to Hampton at the request of General Armstrong. These seventy men and women became the first American Indian students at Hampton and began a Native American education program that spanned more than 40 years, with the last student graduating in 1923.


    The Trade School Era

    Throughout the 1880s and 1890s, Hampton Normal School saw a dramatic increase in enrollment and educational offerings, which created a need not only for additional dormitory space, but also for auxiliary facilities. A number of buildings were constructed during this twenty-year span, including Whipple Barn, Wigwam (the American Indian boy's dormitory), Holly Tree Inn, and the Armstrong-Slater Trade School, most all of them built by Hampton students.

    The new trade school would offer instruction in farming, carpentry, harnessmaking, printing, tailoring, clocksmithing, blacksmithing, painting, and wheelwrighting. By 1904, nearly three-fourths of all boys at Hampton were taking trades classes. In addition to expansion of the agricultural program in 1913, Hampton's music program flourished under the direction of Dr. R. Nathaniel Dett, who brought the Hampton Choir and Quartet to the world through highly acclaimed performances in London, Vienna, Zurich, Berlin, Geneva, and Paris.


    Hampton Institute – The College

    Enhancing Hampton's curriculum to meet the stringent requirements of college level accreditation was the focus during the late 1900s and throughout the 1920s. Many new programs were added and the requirements for existing courses were raised to meet the new standard Hampton placed upon itself. A Library Science School was established in 1924 and an extension program was begun in 1929 to reach students who were unable to come to campus. The Robert C. Ogden Auditorium was built in 1918 and with two thousand seats, it was at the time the largest auditorium in the area. Today, Ogden Hall is considered one of the finest acoustical venues in the nation.

    In the Principal's report of 1929, Hampton President Dr. James Edward Gregg stated that "Hampton Institute is now a college." He went on to state that, "Every one of its collegiate divisions or schools–Agriculture, Home Economics, Education, Business, Building, Librarianship, Music–is fitting its students for their life-work as teachers or as practitioners in their chosen calling."

    On July 1, 1930, Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute became Hampton Institute and the title of Principal–Dr. George Phenix at the time–was changed to President.


    The Great Depression

    The 1930s brought with it the Great Depression and intense challenges for Hampton Institute. Already confronted with an overwhelming budget deficit, the college experienced a decrease in enrollment and budget cuts and staff dismissals were common. To cut costs, the Library School was discontinued in 1940 and the Nursing School was taken over by a local hospital that same year.

    When America became involved in World War II, financial relief would soon arrive to Hampton Institute as the federal government established war training facilities on the campus. After the war, many of the military training buildings were purchased by the college and are still in use today.

    In addition to Hampton's financial troubles, many felt that the school's decades-old educational philosophies no longer applied to a changing racial climate where the emerging youth began to question accepted policies and procedures. Students wanted more self-governance and a change in many of the regulations. While the Hampton staff was interracial, there were no Negroes employed as heads of departments and schools. Thus, in 1940, a few high-ranking administrative positions–including Dean of Instruction and Dean of Women–were appointed to Negroes. And in 1949, Dr. Alonzo G. Moron became the first Negro president of Hampton Institute.


    A New Wave of Growth

    During the 1950s, programs in Agriculture and the trades were phased out due to decreased enrollment and a change in the American workforce climate. However, a number of new programs were initiated, including graduate studies in Mathematics, Chemistry, and Physics.

    During the tenure of Hampton Institute's ninth President, Dr. Jerome H. Holland, the college experienced a decade of growth in every facet and program. Twelve new buildings were constructed, faculty numbers increased, average salaries doubled, and student enrollment reached 2,600 by 1969. New programs and departments were established, including a computer technology program, the College of Cooperative Education, and a Department of Mass Media Arts.

    Accompanying Hampton's steady growth in the 1960s was the controversial landscape of the Civil Rights Movement and the changing attitudes of Negroes, who were finally able to see the promise of first-class citizenship and equal educational and economic opportunity in a democratic society. Noted civil rights leaders, including Dr. Martin Luther King, visited the Hampton campus. In 1957, two years after being arrested for refusing to give up her seat to a white bus passenger, Rosa Parks moved to the Hampton area where she worked on campus as a hostess at The Holly Tree Inn. On February 11, 1960, a group of Hampton Institute students were the first in Virginia to stage a lunch counter sit-in, to protest local business' refusal to serve blacks and whites equally.


    Continuing the Tradition

    The social unrest of the 1960s spilled over into the 1970s as students demanded a wider variety of courses, coed living on campus, and a stronger voice in the Administrative Council and the Board of Trustees. In the face of student protests, bomb threats, and dormitory fires, Hampton President Dr. Roy Hudson managed to improve relations with students and expand many programs, including the college's Engineering program, through partnerships with other universities.

    Dr. William R. Harvey was unanimously elected the twelfth President of Hampton Institute in 1978. His efforts included outlining a core set of required courses, establishing an M.B.A. program and centers for high-tech scientific research, and expanding the Continuing Education Program. By 1983, student enrollment had reached nearly four thousand and SAT scores of entering freshmen increased by 93 points, even though national enrollment levels and SAT scores were plummeting.

    In 1984, after a nine-month study of Hampton Institute's rapid growth and development in quality of students, faculty and academic offerings, the recommendation was made to change the name to Hampton University.

    Today, over 150 years after its inception, Hampton University continues to break new ground in academic achievement, staying true to General Armstrong's original promise of The Standard of Excellence, An Education for Life.

    Sours: https://www.hamptonu.edu/about/history.cfm
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    University of Mississippi

    Public university in Mississippi, U.S.

    The University of Mississippi, byname Ole Miss, is a publicresearch university adjacent to Oxford, Mississippi. Including its medical center in Jackson, the University of Mississippi is the state's largest university by enrollment and is Mississippi's flagship university.

    The university was chartered by the Mississippi Legislature on February 24, 1844, and four years later admitted its first enrollment of 80 students. It operated as a Confederate hospital during the Civil War and narrowly avoided destruction by Ulysses S. Grant's forces. A race riot erupted on campus in 1962 during the civil rights movement when segregationists tried to prevent the enrollment of African American James Meredith. The university has since taken measures to improve its image. Ole Miss is closely associated with writer William Faulkner and owns and manages his former home Rowan Oak. In addition to Faulkner's home, two other sites on campus—Barnard Observatory and the Lyceum–The Circle Historic District—are listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

    Ole Miss is classified among "R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity". The university is one of 33 colleges and universities participating in the National Sea Grant Program and a participant in the National Space Grant College and Fellowship Program. Its research efforts include the National Center for Physics Acoustics and the Mississippi Center for Supercomputing Research. Its federally contracted marijuana facility serves as the only Food and Drug Administration-approved source for cannabis research. The university also operates interdisciplinary institutes such as the Center for the Study of Southern Culture. Its athletic teams compete as the Ole Miss Rebels in the National Collegiate Athletic Association, Southeastern Conference, Division I.

    The university's alumni include 27 Rhodes Scholars, 10 governors, 5 US senators, one head of state, and a Nobel Prize Laureate. Other alumni have received honors such as Emmy Awards, Grammy Awards, and Pulitzer Prizes. Its medical center performed the first human lung transplant and animal-to-human heart transplant.

    History[edit]

    Main article: History of the University of Mississippi

    Founding and early history[edit]

    The Mississippi Legislature chartered the University of Mississippi on February 24, 1844.[3] Planners selected the university's isolated rural site in the town of Oxford as it was a "sylvan exile" that would foster academic studies.[4] In 1845, residents of Lafayette County donated land west of Oxford for the campus, and, the following year, architect William Nichols oversaw construction of the Lyceum, two dormitories, and faculty residences.[3] On November 6, 1848, the university—offering a classical curriculum—opened its doors to its first class of 80 students.[4][5] Mostly children of elite slaveholders, they were all white, and all but one were from Mississippi.[4][6] For 23 years, the university was Mississippi's only public institution of higher learning,[7] and for 110 years it was the state's only comprehensive university.[8] In 1854, the University of Mississippi School of Law was established, the fourth state-supported law school in the United States.[9]

    Early president Frederick A. P. Barnard sought to increase the stature of the university, placing him in conflict with the more conservative board of trustees.[10] His hundred-page 1858 report to the trustees on his proposals resulted in little besides the university head's title being changed to "chancellor".[11] Barnard's northern background—he was born in Massachusetts and graduated from Yale—and Union sympathies resulted in heightened tensions: a student assaulted his slave and the state legislature investigated him.[10] Following the presidential election of Abraham Lincoln in 1860, Mississippi became the second state to secede, with the articles of secession drafted by the university's mathematics professor Lucius Quintus Cincinnatus Lamar.[12] Students organized themselves into a military company called the "University Greys", which merged with the Confederate States Army.[13] Within a month of the Civil War's outbreak, only 5 students remained at the University of Mississippi, and, by fall 1861, the university closed. In its final action, the board of trustees awarded Barnard a doctorate of divinity.[13]

    Within six months, Confederates converted the campus into a hospital. It was evacuated in November 1862 as General Ulysses S. Grant's Union forces approached. Although Kansan troops destroyed much of the medical equipment, a lone remaining professor persuaded Grant against burning the campus.[14][note 1] After three weeks, Grant and his forces left, and the campus returned to being a Confederate hospital. Throughout the war, over 700 wounded died and were buried on campus.[16]

    Post-Civil War[edit]

    A woman in collegiate garb
    The University of Mississippi was the first college in the Southeast to hire a female faculty member: Sarah McGehee Isomin 1885.

    The University of Mississippi reopened in October 1865.[16] To avoid rejecting veterans, the university lowered admission standards and decreased costs by eliminating tuition and allowing students to live off-campus and prepare their meals.[5] The university became coeducational in 1882;[17] however, women could not live on campus or attend the law school.[5] In 1885, the University of Mississippi became the first college in the Southeast to hire a female faculty member, Sarah McGehee Isom.[5][18] Nearly 100 years later, the Sarah Isom Center for Women and Gender Studies was established in her honor.[5][18]

    The university's byname "Ole Miss" dates to 1897, when it was the winning entry of a contest held to solicit suggestions for a yearbook title.[19] The term "Ole Miss" originated as a title domestic slaves used to distinguish the mistress of the plantation from the "young misses".[20] Fringe origin theories include that the nickname originated from a diminutive of "Old Mississippi",[21][22][23] or, less likely, the "Ole Miss" train that ran from Memphis to New Orleans.[19][24] Within two years, students and alumni were using "Ole Miss" to refer to the university.[25]

    The Mississippi Legislature between 1900 and 1930 introduced bills aiming to relocate, close, or merge Ole Miss with Mississippi State University. All such legislation failed.[26] During the 1930s, Mississippi GovernorTheodore G. Bilbo was politically hostile towards the University of Mississippi, firing administrators and faculty and replacing them with his friends. Bilbo's actions,[27] known as the "Biblo purge",[28] damaged Ole Miss to such a degree that it temporarily lost its accredation. Consequently, in 1944 the Mississippi Constitution was amended to insulate the Board of Trustees from political pressure.[27] During World War II, Ole Miss was one of 131 colleges and universities nationally that participated in the V-12 Navy College Training Program, which offered students a path to a Navy commission.[29]

    Integration[edit]

    Further information: Ole Miss riot of 1962

    In 1954, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in Brown v. Board of Education that segregation in public schools was unconstitutional.[30] Eight years after the Brown decision, all attempts by African American applicants to integrate the University of Mississippi had failed.[31][32] Shortly after the 1961 inauguration of President John F. Kennedy, James Meredith—an African American who had served in the Air Force and completed coursework at Jackson State University—applied to Ole Miss.[33] After Meredith's admission was obstructed for months by Mississippi officials, the U.S. Supreme Court ordered his enrollment and the Department of Justice, under Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy's orders, entered the case on Meredith's behalf.[31][34] On three occasions, Meredith was physically blocked from enrolling by governor Ross R. Barnett or Lieutenant Governor Paul B. Johnson Jr..[35][36]

    After the United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit held both Barnett and Johnson, Jr. in contempt, with fines of more than $10,000 for each day they refused to enroll Meredith,[37] President John F. Kennedy dispatched 127 U.S. Marshals, 316 deputized U.S. Border Patrol agents, and 97 federalized Federal Bureau of Prisons personnel to escort Meredith to the campus on September 30, 1962.[38] With nightfall and the arrival of far-right former Major General Edwin Walker and outside agitators, a gathering of segregationist students before the Lyceum became a violent mob.[39][40][41] Segregationist rioters threw Molotov cocktails and bottles of acid and fired at federal marshals and reporters.[42][43] Two civilians were killed by gunfire during the riot, French journalist Paul Guihard and Oxford repairman Ray Gunter.[44][45] Eventually, 13,000 soldiers arrived in Oxford and quelled the riot.[46] One-third of the federal officers, 166 men, were injured, as were 40 federal soldiers and National Guardsmen.[45] The strength of all forces deployed, alerted, and committed in Oxford was over 30,000—the largest for a single disturbance in American history.[47]

    After control was established by federal forces, Meredith enrolled and attended class on October 1.[48] By 1968, there were around 100 African American students,[49] and as of the 2019–2020 academic year, African Americans compose 12.5 percent of the student body.[50]

    Recent history[edit]

    In 1972, Ole Miss purchased Rowan Oak, the former home of Nobel Prize-winning writer William Faulkner.[52][53] The home is preserved as it was at the time of Faulkner's 1962 death. Faulkner worked as the university's postmaster in the early 1920s and wrote As I Lay Dying at the university powerhouse. His Nobel Prize medallion is displayed in the university library.[54] Fostering Faulkner's legacy, the university hosted the inaugural Faulkner and Yoknapatawpha Conference in 1974. Six years later, in 1980, Willie Morris became the university's first writer in residence.[5]

    In 2002, Ole Miss marked the 40th anniversary of integration with a yearlong series of events, including an oral history of the university, various symposiums, a memorial, and a reunion of federal marshals who had served at the campus.[55][56] In 2006, the 44th anniversary of integration, a statue of Meredith was dedicated on campus.[57] Two years later, in 2008, the site of the riots was designated as a National Historic Landmark.[58] Ole Miss also held a yearlong program to mark the 50th anniversary of integration in 2012.[59] The university hosted the first presidential debate of 2008, between Senators John McCain and Barack Obama. It was the first presidential debate held in Mississippi.[60][61]

    In 2003, Ole Miss retired its mascot, Colonel Reb, due to Confederate imagery.[62] Although a grass-roots movement to adopt Star Wars character Admiral Ackbar (of the Rebel Alliance) gained significant traction,[63][64]Rebel Black Bear—a reference to Faulkner's short story The Bear—was selected as the new mascot in 2010.[65][66] This mascot was replaced with another mascot, Tony the Landshark, in 2017.[66][67] In 2015, Ole Miss removed the Mississippi State Flag, which featured the Confederate battle emblem,[68] and in 2020, the university relocated a prominent Confederate monument.[69]

    Campus[edit]

    Oxford campus[edit]

    Panoramic view of the courtyard behind the Lyceum
    Panoramic view of the courtyard behind the Lyceum(1848)

    Situated at an altitude of around 500 feet, the main campus of the University of Mississippi has expanded from one square-mile of land to around 1,200 acres (1.875 square-miles). The campus' buildings are largely designed in a Georgian architectural style; some of the newer buildings have a more contemporary architecture.[70]

    The campus' center is "The Circle", which consists of eight academic buildings organized around an ovaloid common. The buildings include the Lyceum (1848), the "Y" Building (1853), and six later buildings constructed in a Neoclassical Revival style.[58] The Lyceum was the first building built on the Oxford campus and was expanded with two wings in 1903. The university claims that the Lyceum's bell is the oldest academic bell in the United States.[70] Near the Circle, The Grove—a 10-acre plot of land set aside by chancellor Robert Burwell Fultonc. 1893—hosts up to 100,000 tailgaters during home games.[71][72]Barnard Observatory, constructed under Chancellor Barnard in 1859, was designed to house the world's largest telescope. However, due to the Civil War's outbreak, the telescope was never delivered and was instead acquired by Northwestern University.[70][73] The observatory was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1978.[74][75] The first major building built after the Civil War was Ventress Hall, constructed in a Victorian Romanesque style in 1889.[70]

    Architect Frank P. Gates designed 18 buildings on campus from 1929 to 1930, mostly in Georgian Revival architectural style, including (Old) University High School, Barr Hall, Bondurant Hall, Farley Hall (also known as Lamar Hall), Faulkner Hall, Hill Hall, Howry Hall, Isom Hall, Longstreet Hall, Martindale Hall, Vardaman Hall, the Cafeteria/Union Building, and the Wesley Knight Field House.[76][77] During the 1930s, there were dozens of building projects at Ole Miss largely funded by the Public Works Administration and other federal entities.[78] Among the notable buildings built in this period is the dual-domed Kennon Observatory (1939).[79] Two large modern buildings—the Ole Miss Union (1976) and Lamar Hall (1977)—sparked controversy by diverging from the university's traditional architecture.[80] In 1998, the Gertrude C. Ford Foundation donated $20 million to establish the Gertrude C. Ford Center for the Performing Arts.[81] It was the first building on campus dedicated solely to the performing arts.[82] Ole Miss is currently constructing a 202,000 square foot STEM facility, the largest single construction project in the campus' history.[83]

    The university owns and operates the University of Mississippi Museum, which comprises collections of American fine art, Classical antiquities, and Southern folk art, as well as historic properties in Oxford.[84] Ole Miss also owns the Oxford-University Airport, located north of the main campus.[70]

    • Campus of the University of Mississippi
    • Ventress Hall
    • Ole Miss Student Union

    Satellite campuses[edit]

    In 1903, the University of Mississippi School of Medicine was established on the Oxford campus. It only offered two years of medical courses, and students had to attend an out of state medical school to complete their degree.[85] Medical education remained in this form until 1955 when the University of Mississippi Medical Center (UMMC) was established on a 164-acre site in Jackson, Mississippi, and the School of Medicine was relocated there.[86] With the relocation of the Nursing School establishment of the nursing school in 1956 and the establishment of other health-related schools, the UMMC now offers medical and graduate degrees.[85] In addition to the medical center, there are satellite campuses in Booneville,[87] DeSoto,[88] Grenada,[89] Rankin,[90] and Tupelo.[91]

    Administration and organization[edit]

    Divisions of the university[edit]

    The University of Mississippi consists of 15 schools.[105] The largest undergraduate school is the College of Liberal Arts.[92] Graduate schools include a law school, a school of business administration, an engineering school, and a medical school.[106]

    Administration[edit]

    See also: Chancellor of the University of Mississippi

    Ole Miss' chief administrative officer is the chancellor,[107] a position held by Glenn Boyce since 2019.[108] The chancellor is supported by multiple vice chancellors who administer areas such as research and intercollegiate athletics. The provost oversees the university's academic affairs,[109] and each school, as well as general studies and the honors college, is overseen by a dean.[110] A faculty senate advises the administration.[111]

    The Board of Trustees of the Mississippi State Institutions of Higher Learning is the constitutional governing body responsible for policy and financial oversight of Ole Miss and Mississippi's seven other public secondary institutions. It consists of 12 members, who serve staggered 9 year terms and represent the three Supreme Court Districts in the state. The Board appoints the Commissioner of Higher Education who administers its policies.[112]

    Finances[edit]

    As of April 2021, Ole Miss' endowment was $775 million.[113] The university's budget for fiscal year 2019 was over $540 million.[114] Less than 13% of operating revenues are funded by the state of Mississippi,[113] and the university relies heavily on private donations. Notably, the Ford Foundation has donated nearly 65 million to the Oxford campus and the UMMC.[115]

    Academics and programs[edit]

    The University of Mississippi is Mississippi's largest university by enrollment and is considered the state's flagship university.[116][117][118] The student-faculty ratio at Ole Miss is 19:1. 47.4 percent of its classes have fewer than 20 students. The most popular majors include: Integrated Marketing Communications, Elementary Education and Teaching; Marketing/Marketing Management, General; Accountancy, Finance, General; Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical Sciences, and Administration, Other; Biology, Psychology and Criminal Justice; and Business Administration and Management, General.[119] To receive a bachelor's degree, students must have at least 120 semester hours with passing grades and a cumulative 2.0 GPA.[120]

    Ole Miss also offers graduates degrees such as PhDs and master's of art, science, and fine arts.[121] Notably, the university maintains the Mississippi Teacher Corps, a free graduate program that educates teachers for critical-needs public schools.[122]

    First awarded in 1905, Taylor Medals are presented to exceptional students nominated by the faculty. Named in honor of Marcus Elvis Taylor (Class of 1871), these medals are given to less than one percent of each class.[23]

    Research[edit]

    A series of shallow ponds arranged in a grid and surrounded by forest. There is a light snow on the ground.
    Research ponds at the University of Mississippi Field Station

    Ole Miss is classified among "R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity".[123][124] According to the National Science Foundation, Ole Miss spent $137 million on research and development in 2018, ranking it 142nd in the nation.[125] It is one of the 33 colleges and universities participating in the National Sea Grant Program and a participant in the National Space Grant College and Fellowship Program.[126] Since 1948, Ole Miss has been a member of the Oak Ridge Associated Universities.[127]

    University of Mississippi Medical Center surgeons, led by James Hardy, performed the world's first human lung transplant, in 1963, and the world's first animal-to-human heart transplant, in 1964. The heart of a chimpanzee was used for the heart transplant because of Hardy's research on transplantation, consisting of primate studies during the previous nine years.[128][129]

    Ole Miss established its Medicinal Plant Garden in 1965, which is used for drug research by the School of Pharmacy.[130] Since 1968, the school has operated the only legal marijuana farm and production facility in the United States. The National Institute on Drug Abuse contracts to the university production of cannabis for use in approved research studies as well as for distribution to the seven surviving medical cannabis patients grandfathered into the Compassionate Investigational New Drug program.[131] The facility is the only source of marijuana that medical researchers can use to conduct Food and Drug Administration-approved tests.[132][133]

    The National Center for Physics Acoustics (NCPA), established by Congress in 1986, is located on campus.[70][106][134] In addition to conducting research, the NCPA houses the Acoustical Society of America's archives.[134] Ole Miss also operates the University of Mississippi Field Station, which includes 223 research ponds and supports long-term ecological research,[135] and hosts the Mississippi Center for Supercomputing Research and the Mississippi Law Research Institute.[106][136][137][138] In 2012, Ole Miss completed Insight Park, a research park that "welcomes companies commercializing University of Mississippi research".[139][140]

    Special programs[edit]

    Trent Lott Leadership Institute
    Panoramic view of the Trent Lott Leadership Institute

    Honors education, consisting of lectures by distinguished academics, was initiated at the University of Mississippi in 1953. In 1974, this program became the University Scholars Program, and, in 1983, the University Honors Program was created and honors core courses were offered.[141] In 1997, Netscape CEO Jim Barksdale and wife Sally donated $5.4 million to establish the Sally McDonnell Barksdale Honors College (SMBHC).[142] The SMBHC provides a capstone project (a senior thesis) and endowed scholarships.[141]

    In 1977, Ole Miss established its Center for the Study of Southern Culture with funding from the National Endowment for the Humanities. Housed in the College of Liberal Arts, the center provides for interdisciplinary studies of Southern history and culture.[143] In 2000, the university established the Trent Lott Leadership Institute, named after alumnus and then US Senate majority leaderTrent Lott. The institute was funded with large corporate donations from MCI Inc. and Lockheed Martin among others.[144] In addition to various leadership initiatives, the institute offers a BA degree in Public Policy Leadership.[145] The Center for Intelligence and Security Studies (CISS) delivers academic programming on intelligence analysis. In addition, the CISS engages in applied research and consortium building with government, private, and academic partners.[146] In 2012, the United States Director of National Intelligence designated CISS as an Intelligence Community Center of Academic Excellence (CAE). CISS is one of only 29 college programs in the United States with this distinction.[147] Other special programs include the Haley Barbour Center for Manufacturing Excellence—established jointly by Ole Miss and Toyota in 2008—and the Chinese Language Flagship Program (simplified Chinese: 中文旗舰项目; traditional Chinese: 中文旗艦項目; pinyin: Zhōngwén Qíjiàn Xiàngmù).[148][149] The Croft Institute for International Studies, founded in 1998, provides the only international studies undergraduate program in Mississippi.[150]

    The University of Mississippi is a member of the SEC Academic Consortium. Now renamed the SECU, the initiative was a collaborative endeavor designed to promote research, scholarship and achievement among the member universities in the Southeastern Conference.[151][152] In 2013, the university participated in the SEC Symposium on renewable energy in Atlanta, Georgia which was organized and led by the University of Georgia and the UGA Bioenergy Systems Research Institute.[153]

    In 2021, actor Morgan Freeman and Professor Linda Keena donated $1 million to Ole Miss to create the Center for Evidence-Based Policing and Reform. The center will provide training law enforcement and seek to improve how law enforcement engages with the community.[154][155]

    Rankings and accolades[edit]

    In U.S. News & World Report's 2022 rankings, the University of Mississippi was tied for 148th among national universities and 67th among public universities.[156] In 2018, Bloomberg Businessweek ranked the Professional MBA program at the School of Business Administration in the top 50 among American public universities,[157] and the online MBA program in the top 25.[158] As of 2018, all three degree programs at the Patterson School of Accountancy were among the top 10 accounting programs according to the Public Accounting Report.[159]

    For the last 10 years, the Chronicle of Higher Education has named Ole Miss as one of the "Great Colleges to Work For". In the 2018 results, released in the Chronicle's annual report on "The Academic Workplace", Ole Miss was among 84 institutions honored from the 253 colleges and universities surveyed.[160] In 2018, the Ole Miss campus was ranked the second safest in the SEC and one of the safest in the nation.[161]

    As of 2019, the university has had 27 Rhodes Scholars.[162] Since 1998, it has 10 Goldwater Scholars, seven Truman Scholars, 18 Fulbright Scholars, a Marshall Scholar, three Udall Scholars, two Gates Cambridge Scholars, one Mitchell Scholar, 19 Boren Scholars, one Boren fellow and one German Chancellor Fellowship.[163]

    People[edit]

    Ethnic composition of student body (2019-2020)[50]

      White (75.9%)

      African American (12.5%)

      Asian (4.8%)

      Hispanic or Latino (4%)

      Two or More Races (2.3%)

      Native Hawaiian, Pacific Islander (0.1%)

    Student body[edit]

    As of the 2020–2021 academic year, the student body consisted of 15,546 undergraduates and 3,122 in graduate programs.[164] The undergraduate population is majority female, roughly 57 percent.[165][164] As of fall 2020, minorities composed 24.3 percent of the body.[166] The median family income of students is $116,600, and over half of students come from the top 20 percent. According to The New York Times, Ole Miss has the seventh highest share of students from the economic top one percent among selective public schools.[167] The median starting salary of a graduate is $47,700 according to US News.[168]

    Although a majority—54 percent—of undergraduates are from Mississippi,[50] the student body is geographically diverse. As of fall 2020, Ole Miss undergraduates represented all 82 counties in Mississippi, 49 states, the District of Columbia, and 86 countries.[166] The average freshman retention rate, an indicator of student success and satisfaction, is 85.7 percent.[166] In 2020, the student body included over 1,100 transfer students.[164]

    Faculty[edit]

    As of the 2020–2021 academic year, there were, excluding those of the UMMC, 1,092 professors, of whom 424 were tenured. At this time, there were 592 male and 500 female professors.[169]

    With the early emphasis on classical studies, multiple notable classicists, including George Tucker Stainback, Wilson Gaines Richardson, and William Hailey Willis, have held positions teaching at the University of Mississippi.[170][171] Archeologist David Moore Robinson, credited with discovering the ancient city of Olynthus, also taught classics at the university.[172][173] Former Mississippi Governor Ronnie Musgrove was a political science lecturer,[174] and Kyle Duncan was an assistant law professor prior to his appointment to the United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit.[175][176]Landon Garland taught astronomy and philosophy prior to becoming the first president of Vanderbilt University.[177][178] Actor James Best, best known for The Dukes of Hazzard, was an artist-in-residence.[179] Additionally, Robert Q. Marston, Director of the National Institutes of Health, served as the dean of the medical school,[180][181] and Eugene W. Hilgard, considered the father of soil science, taught chemistry at Ole Miss.[182] Other notable scientific faculty include psychologist David H. Barlow and physicist Mack A. Breazeale.[183][184]

    Noted alumni[edit]

    Main article: List of University of Mississippi notable alumni

    In addition to Faulkner,[186] notable writers who attended the University of Mississippi include Florence Mars,[187]Patrick D. Smith,[188]Stark Young,[189] and bestseller John Grisham.[190] Notable journalist graduates include Boston Globe correspondent Curtis Wilkie and broadcast journalist Shepard Smith.[191][192] Alumni in film include Emmy Award-winning actor Gerald McRaney and Tate Taylor, director of The Help.[193][194] Musicians who studied at Ole Miss include Mose Allison and Grammy Award-winner Glen Ballard.[195][196] Athlete graduates include tennis player and 12-time Grand Slam Champion Mahesh Bhupathi,[197]New York Yankees catcher Jake Gibbs,[198] and Michael Oher, NFL offensive lineman and subject of The Blind Side.[199] Additionally, three Miss Americas and one Miss USA are among Ole Miss alumni.[200][201][202]

    Ole Miss alumni include 5 US senators and 10 governors.[203] Other public servant graduates include Mississippi Supreme Court Chief Justice Bill Waller Jr.,[204] US Secretary of the Navy Ray Mabus,[205][206] White House Press Secretary Larry Speakes,[207] and Dominican Prime Minister Roosevelt Skerrit.[208] Notable academics include Pomona College president E. Wilson Lyon,[209]Pulitzer Prize-winning Harvard professor Thomas K. McCraw,[210] and Mercer University president James Bruton Gambrell.[211] Notable physicians include Arthur Guyton,[212]American Medical Association head Edward Hill,[213] and Thomas F. Frist Sr., co-founder of Hospital Corporation of America.[214] Alumnus William Parsons served as Director of NASA's Stennis Space Center and later the Kennedy Space Center.[215]

    Athletics[edit]

    Main article: Ole Miss Rebels

    The University of Mississippi's athletic teams participate in the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), Southeastern Conference (SEC), Division I as the Ole Miss Rebels.[106][216] Varsity athletic teams at the University of Mississippi for women include basketball, cross country, golf, rifle, soccer, softball, tennis, track and field, and volleyball. Men's varsity teams are baseball, basketball, cross country, football, golf, tennis, and track and field.[217]

    In 1893, professor Alexander Bondurant organized the school's football team.[218] As collegiate athletic teams began to receive names, a contest resulted in the name "Mississippi Flood" being selected in 1929. However, due to the lasting harm of the Great Mississippi Flood of 1927, the name was changed to the "Rebels" in 1936.[219] The first prime time telecast of college football was of a 1969 Ole Miss game.[220] The team has won six SEC championships.[221] Major rivals include Louisiana State University and Mississippi State University, which Ole Miss respectively plays in the Magnolia Bowl and Egg Bowl.[222][223] Other rivals include Tulane and Vanderbilt.[224][225] Football alumni Archie and Eli Manning, both quarterbacks, are honored on campus with speed limits set to 18 and 10 MPH: their respective jersey numbers.[226]

    Outside of football, Ole Miss Baseball has won 7 overall SEC championships and 3 SEC Tournaments.[227] The men's tennis team has won 5 overall SEC championships and has had one NCAA Singles Champion (Devin Britton).[228][229] Women's basketball has won one overall SEC championship.[230] Notable former players include Armintie Price, who holds the SEC record for steals in a game and was the third pick in the 2007 WNBA Draft,[231] and Jennifer Gillom, 1986 SEC Female Athlete of the Year and 1988 Olympic Gold Medalist.[232] Men's basketball has won two SEC Tournaments.[233] In 2021, Ole Miss women's golf won its first NCAA Division I Women's Golf Championship.[234]

    Student life[edit]

    Are You Ready?
    Hell Yeah! Damn Right!
    Hotty Toddy, Gosh Almighty,
    Who The Hell Are We? Hey!
    Flim Flam, Bim Bam
    Ole Miss By Damn!

    — The Hotty Toddy chant[235]

    Traditions[edit]

    A common greeting on campus is "Hotty Toddy!", also used in the school chant. The word has no explicit meaning, and its origin is unknown.[235] The chant was first published in 1926, but "Hotty Toddy" was spelled "Heighty Tighty". This early spelling has led some to suggest that it originated with Virginia Tech's regimental band, The Heighty Tighties.[235][236] Other proposed origins are "hoity-toity", meaning snobbish,[237][236] or the alcoholic drink hot toddy.[237]

    On game days, the Grove, a 10 acre plot of trees, hosts an elaborate tailgating tradition,[72][238] with the The New York Times noting, "Perhaps there isn't a word for the ritualized pregame revelry... 'Tailgating' certainly does not do it justice." The tradition dates back to 1991, when cars were banned from the Grove.[72] Prior to each game, over 2,000 red and blue barrels called "Dixie Cups" are placed throughout the Grove. This event is known as "Trash Can Friday". Each barrel marks a tailgating spot.[239] The spots are then claimed by tailgaters who erect a "tent city" of 2,500 shelters.[72][238] Many of the tents are extravagant—featuring chandeliers and fine china—and typically host meals of Southern cuisine.[238] The university maintains "Hotty Toddy Potties"—elaborate portable bathrooms on 18-wheeler platforms—to accommodate the crowds.[72]

    Student organizations[edit]

    The first sanctioned student organizations were two literary societies established in 1849, the Hermaean Society and the Phi Sigma Society. Weekly meetings, for which attendance was mandatory, were held in the Lyceum until 1853 and then in the chapel.[240] With the university's emphasis on rhetoric, public orations—organized by students on the first Monday of every month—were popular. Studies were sometimes canceled so students could attend speeches of visiting politicians such as Jefferson Davis and William L. Sharkey.[241]

    In the 1890s, extracurricular and nonintellectual activities proliferated on campus, and interest in oratory and the now voluntary literary societies diminished.[242]Turn of the century student organizations included Cotillion Club, the elite Stag Club, and German Club among several others.[243] In the 1890s, the local YMCA began publishing a list of the organizations in the M-Book.[243] As of 2021, the handbook is still provided to students.[243][244]

    The Associated Student Body (ASB), established in 1917,[245] is the Ole Miss student government organization. Students are elected to the ASB Senate in the spring semester, with leftover seats voted on in the fall by open-seat elections. Senators can represent Registered-Student Organizations such as the Greek councils and sports clubs, or they can run to represent their academic school.[246] The University of Mississippi's marching band, called The Pride of the South, performs in concert and at athletic events. Although formally organized in 1928,[247] the band existed prior to that date as a smaller organization led by a student director.[248] A Phi Beta Kappa chapter was established in 2001, the only such one at a public institution in Mississippi.[163]

    Amenities[edit]

    Starship Technologies robots on campus
    Starship Technologiesrobots on campus. A traditional dorm can be seen in the foreground: larger modern dorms can be seen in the background.

    Approximately 5,300 students live on campus in 13 residence halls, 2 residential colleges, and 2 apartment complexes.[249] Students are required to live on-campus during their first year.[106] Within residence halls, students designated as community assistants provide information and resolve issues.[250] In the early 20th century, the university provided cottages for married students.[243] In 1947, the Vet Village was constructed to room the surge in World War II veteran applicants.[251]

    Ole Miss provides the Oxford University Transit, a shuttle system free for students, faculty, and staff.[252] In early 2020, Starship Technologies introduced an automated food delivery system on campus. Consisting of a fleet of 30 robots, it was the first such system among any SEC school.[253][254]

    Two dining services on campus—Catering at UM and the Rebel Market—are the only Certified Green restaurants in the state of Mississippi.[255] In 2019, Ole Miss opened a 98,000 square-foot recreation center. It contains a gym, indoor climbing wall, basketball courts, and other services.[256]

    Greek life[edit]

    Greek life at the University of Mississippi comprises 32 organizations and around 7,000 affiliated students.[257] Greek societies are housed along Fraternity Row and Sorority Row, which were constructed with federal funds in the late 1930s.[258]

    The first fraternity founded in the South was the Rainbow Fraternity, founded at Ole Miss in 1848.[259][260][note 2] Other early fraternities established at the university include Delta Kappa Epsilon (1850), Delta Kappa (1853), Delta Psi (1854), and Epsilon Alpha (1855).[240] By 1900, a majority of University of Mississippi students were members of a fraternity or sorority. Non-Greek students felt excluded on campus and tensions between the two escalated. The University Magazine denounced the Greek societies as "the most vicious institution that has grown up in any college".[261] In 1902, Lee Russell, a poor Ole Miss student allegedly rejected by the fraternities, appeared before the board of trustees to criticize the Greek societies.[262][note 3] In response, the board threatened to abolish Greek life if non-Greek students continued to be ostracized. In 1903, rumors spread that Greek and non-Greek students were preparing to "meet in combat".[263] Multiple state legislative investigations were held to address the issue.[264] All Greek life at Ole Miss was suspended from 1912 to 1926 due to statewide anti-fraternity legislation.[265][266]

    As part of a larger crackdown on embarrassing fraternity incidents, Chancellor Gerald Turner ended the traditional Shrimp and Beer Festival in 1984.[267] In 1988, Phi Beta Sigma, a black fraternity, was preparing to move into a house on the all-white Fraternity Row when their house was burned by arsonists. An alumnus helped purchase another house, and Fraternity Row was integrated two months later.[268] In a 1989 incident, fraternity members dropped naked students painted with racist slurs at the historically black Rust College.[269] In 2014, three fraternity members placed a noose and Confederate symbol on the Meredith statue,[270][271] and in 2019, fraternity members posed in front of an Emmett Till historical marker with guns.[272]

    Media[edit]

    The first student publication at the University of Mississippi was The University Magazine, founded in 1856 and published by the literary societies.[273] The rivalry between Ole Miss and Mississippi State originated, not from football, but an 1895 condemnation by The University Magazine of a Mississippi State publication which had written that Ole Miss "lacked dignity".[274] The first student newspaper, The University Record, began publication in 1898. Both the Record and the Magazine suffered financially and were suspended in 1902.[23]

    In 1907, the university's newspaper was revived by the YMCA and student athletic organization as the Varsity Voice.[23] In 1911, this newspaper was superseded by another student-published newspaper, The Daily Mississippian.[23][275] The paper is editorially independent and is the only daily college newspaper in the state. The paper is also published online as TheDMonline.com, with supplementary content.[275]

    Established in 1980, NewsWatch is a student-produced, live newscast, and the only local newscast in Lafayette County.[276] Ole Miss has one of the only university-operated commercial FM radio stations in the United States, WUMS 92.1 Rebel Radio, which began broadcasting in 1989.[277]

    Notes and references[edit]

    Notes[edit]

    References and citations[edit]

    1. ^"About UM: Facts". The University of Mississippi Facts & Statistics. University of Mississippi. Archived from the original on April 24, 2021. Retrieved March 5, 2019.
    2. ^"Licensing FAQ's". Department of Licensing. University of Mississippi. Archived from the original on July 6, 2016. Retrieved July 11, 2016.
    3. ^ abFowler (1941), p. 213.
    4. ^ abcCohodas (1997), p. 5.
    5. ^ abcdef"University of Mississippi". The Mississippi Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on August 13, 2020. Retrieved April 29, 2021.
    6. ^Andrews, Becca (July 1, 2020). "The Racism of "Ole Miss" Is Hiding in Plain Sight". Mother Jones. Archived from the original on July 9, 2021. Retrieved August 1, 2021.
    7. ^"History". University of Mississippi. Archived from the original on April 4, 2013. Retrieved December 14, 2012.
    8. ^"University of Mississippi Main Campus". Forbes. Archived from the original on June 29, 2021. Retrieved June 28, 2021.
    9. ^ ab"History". School of Law. University of Mississippi. Archived from the original on July 3, 2021. Retrieved July 4, 2021.
    10. ^ abCohodas (1997), pp. 6–7.
    11. ^Cohodas (1997), p. 7.
    12. ^Cohodas (1997), p. 8.
    13. ^ abCohodas (1997), p. 9.
    14. ^Cohodas (1997), p. 10.
    15. ^Sansing (1999), p. 112.
    16. ^ abCohodas (1997), p. 11.
    17. ^Cohodas (1997), p. 18.
    18. ^ ab"History". Sarah Isom Center for Women and Gender Studies. University of Mississippi. Archived from the original on July 24, 2021. Retrieved July 24, 2021.
    19. ^ abMcLaughlin, Elliott C. (July 27, 2021). "The Battle over Ole Miss: Why a flagship university has stood behind a nickname with a racist past". CNN. Archived from the original on December 4, 2020. Retrieved May 13, 2021.
    20. ^Sansing (1999), pp. 168–169.
    21. ^Cabaniss (1949), p. 129.
    22. ^Eagles (2009), p. 17.
    23. ^ abcdeSansing (1999), p. 168.
    24. ^Elmore, Albert Earl (October 24, 2014). "Scholar Finds Evidence 'Ole Miss' Train Key in Establishing University Nickname". Hotty Toddy. Archived from the original on October 30, 2020. Retrieved May 13, 2021.
    25. ^Sansing (1999), p. 169.
    26. ^Sansing (1999), Ch. 8.
    27. ^ abBarrett (1965), p. 23.
    28. ^Sansing (1999), p. 240.
    29. ^"U.S. Naval Administration in World War II". HyperWar Foundation. Archived from the original on October 31, 2012. Retrieved September 29, 2011.
    30. ^Roberts & Klibanoff (2006), pp. 61–62.
    31. ^ abBryant (2006), p. 60.
    32. ^Cohodas (1997), p. 114.
    33. ^Cohodas (1997), p. 112.
    34. ^Roberts & Klibanoff (2006), p. 276.
    35. ^Heymann (1998), p. 282.
    36. ^Roberts & Klibanoff (2006), p. 288.
    37. ^"Ross Barnett, Segregationist, Dies; Governor of Mississippi in 1960's". The New York Times. Associated Press. November 7, 1987. Archived from the original on April 24, 2021. Retrieved May 27, 2010.
    38. ^"U.S. Marshals Mark 50th Anniversary of the Integration of 'Ole Miss'". U.S. Marshals Service. U.S. Department of Justice. Archived from the original on May 23, 2020. Retrieved April 24, 2020.
    39. ^Sansing (1999), p. 302.
    40. ^Roberts & Klibanoff (2006), p. 292.
    41. ^Scheips (2005), p. 102.
    42. ^Roberts & Klibanoff (2006), pp. 291–292.
    43. ^Scheips (2005), p. 105.
    44. ^Wickham (2011), pp. 102–112.
    45. ^ ab"The States: Though the Heavens Fall". Time. October 12, 1962. Archived from the original on October 14, 2007. Retrieved October 3, 2007.
    46. ^Roberts & Klibanoff (2006), p. 297.
    47. ^Scheips (2005), pp. 120−121.
    48. ^"1962: Mississippi race riots over first black student". BBC News. October 1, 1962. Archived from the original on October 5, 2007. Retrieved October 2, 2007.
    49. ^Sansing (1999), p. 321.
    50. ^ abc"Fall 2019-2020 Enrollment". Office of Institutional Research, Effectiveness, and Planning. University of Mississippi. Archived from the original on June 2, 2021. Retrieved June 2, 2021.
    51. ^Polly M. Rettig and John D. McDermott (March 30, 1976). "National Register of Historic Places Inventory-Nomination: William Faulkner Home, Rowan Oak". National Park Service.
    52. ^"History". Rowan Oak. University of Mississippi. Archived from the original on March 10, 2021. Retrieved March 23, 2021.
    53. ^Luesse, Valerie Fraser (September 25, 2020). "The Haunted History of William Faulkner's Rowan Oak". Southern Living. Archived from the original on February 25, 2021. Retrieved March 23, 2021.
    54. ^Boyer, Allen (June 3, 1984). "William Faulkner's Mississippi". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on June 25, 2021. Retrieved March 23, 2021.
    55. ^Byrd, Shelia Hardwell (September 21, 2002). "Meredith ready to move on". Athens Banner-Herald. Associated Press. Archived from the original on October 16, 2007. Retrieved October 2, 2007.
    56. ^Halbfinger, David M. (September 27, 2002). "40 Years After Infamy, Ole Miss Looks to Reflect and Heal". The New York Times. Archived from the original on April 23, 2019. Retrieved June 23, 2021.
    57. ^"Ole Miss dedicates civil rights statue". Deseret News. Associated Press. October 2, 2006. Archived from the original on March 11, 2021. Retrieved July 2, 2021.
    58. ^ abFord, Gene; Salvatore, Susan Cianci (January 23, 2007). National Historic Landmark Nomination: Lyceum(PDF). National Park Service. Archived from the original(PDF) on February 26, 2009.
    59. ^Robertson, Campbell (September 30, 2012). "University of Mississippi Commemorates Integration". The New York Times. Archived from the original on April 24, 2021. Retrieved February 20, 2017.
    60. ^Dewan, Shaila (September 23, 2008). "Debate Host, Too, Has a Message of Change". The New York Times. Archived from the original on April 29, 2021. Retrieved April 29, 2021.
    61. ^"Debates give University of Mississippi a chance to highlight racial progress". The Guardian. September 22, 2008. Archived from the original on April 29, 2021. Retrieved April 29, 2021 – via McClatchy newspapers.
    62. ^Martin, Michael (February 25, 2010). "Ole Miss Retires Controversial Mascot". NPR. Archived from the original on April 24, 2021. Retrieved April 5, 2021.
    63. ^Malinowski, Erik (September 8, 2010). "Ole Miss' Admiral Ackbar Campaign Fizzles". Wired. Archived from the original on January 30, 2021. Retrieved April 5, 2021.
    64. ^Hartstein, Larry; Tagami, Ty (March 1, 2010). "Admiral Ackbar for Ole Miss mascot spurs backlash". The Atlanta Journal-Constitution. Archived from the original on June 5, 2019. Retrieved August 29, 2021.
    65. ^Stevens, Stuart (October 31, 2015). "Between Ole Miss and Me". The Daily Beast. Archived from the original on July 1, 2021. Retrieved June 28, 2021.
    66. ^ ab"Ole Miss adopts Landshark as new official mascot for athletic events". ESPN. October 6, 2017. Archived from the original on December 11, 2020. Retrieved April 5, 2021.
    67. ^Lee, Maddie. "Ole Miss unveils its Landshark mascot, a melding of Rebels history and Hollywood design". The Clarion Ledger. Archived from the original on April 24, 2021. Retrieved September 8, 2018.
    68. ^McLaughlin, Eliott C. (October 26, 2015). "Ole Miss removes state flag from campus". CNN. Archived from the original on April 24, 2021. Retrieved May 10, 2019.
    69. ^Pettus, Emily Wagster (July 14, 2020). "Ole Miss moves Confederate statue from prominent campus spot". Associated Press. Archived from the original on June 2, 2021. Retrieved August 2, 2021.
    70. ^ abcdef"About the University of Mississippi". UM Catalog. University of Mississippi. Archived from the original on May 8, 2021. Retrieved May 8, 2021.
    71. ^Anderson, Seph (April 17, 2013). "The Grove at Ole Miss: Where Football Saturdays Create Lifelong Memories". Bleacher Report. Archived from the original on April 12, 2020. Retrieved May 4, 2021.
    72. ^ abcdeGentry, James K. (October 31, 2014). "Tailgating Goes Above and Beyond at the University of Mississippi". The New York Times. Archived from the original on May 6, 2021. Retrieved May 4, 2021.
    73. ^Sansing (1999), p. 91.
    74. ^"Barnard Observatory". NPGallery Digital Asset Management System. National Park Service. Archived from the original on June 27, 2021. Retrieved June 27, 2021.
    Sours: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/University_of_Mississippi

    School 1861 state largest

    Here’s today’s Final Jeopardy (in the category The Civil War Era) for Tuesday, May 30, 2017:

    The USA’s largest state school in 1861, by 1862 its enrollment had dropped by 90%

    (correct response beneath the contestants)

    Today’s contestants:

    Rand Wise, a math teacher from Decatur, Georgia
    Rand Wise on Jeopardy!
    Kerry Benn, a legal news editor from Springfield, New Jersey
    Kerry Benn on Jeopardy!
    Jon Groubert, a former attorney from Denver, Colorado (3-day total: $76,191)
    Jon Groubert on Jeopardy!

    Jon Groubert is on the 2nd page of our ToC Tracker. A win today would put him onto Page 1!

    If you haven’t seen it yet, you should check out our state-by-state map of where Season 33’s players have hailed from (best viewed on desktop or tablet).

    ---Advertisement---

    Have you had the chance to check out our 2017 Tournament of Champions Tracker? It now contains a graphic of the day-by-day changes in the qualification chances of the players on the bubble!

    Click/Tap Here for Final Jeopardy! Correct Response/Question

    What is the University of Virginia?

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    Looking to find out who won Jeopardy! tonight? Today’s Jeopardy! results and will go up on this page late afternoon, with full stats early to late evening. They will be seen in the comments section at the bottom of this page.

    The University of Virginia was the 2nd largest university in the United States prior to the Civil War. Its pre-war enrollment of 600 dropped 90% by 1862. It was thankfully spared in 1865 by Sheridan’s troops when they reached Charlottesville.

    If you’ve ever been curious about how much the average contestant wins on Jeopardy!, I recently did the math to find out. looking at data dating back to October 2004!

    Remember, you can also now get the following products (and others!) from our new store! Here are our top sellers; all prices are in US dollars!

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    Sours: https://thejeopardyfan.com/2017/05/final-jeopardy-5-30-2017.html
    Kalamazoo’s Colored School (1861-1871)

    Edinboro University was founded in 1857 as the Edinboro Academy, a private training school for Pennsylvania teachers. The school was funded and governed by the citizens of Edinboro, Pennsylvania, who paid just $200 for one acre and $3,200 to construct its lone two-story, six-room building, which still stands on EU's campus as the remodeled Academy Hall. Joel Merriman was the Academy's first principal.

    In 1861, the Edinboro Academy affiliated with the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania to become the second State Normal School in Pennsylvania, known as the Northwest State Normal School.

    Purchased from the original stockholders by the state in 1914, the school was renamed Edinboro State Normal School. While a state normal school, Edinboro continued to educate much-needed teachers, and by 1927, with the advancement of academic programs to include liberal arts study, the school was renamed Edinboro State Teachers College.

    Further development of the liberal arts to include degree programs outside the field of education resulted in Edinboro becoming Edinboro State College in 1960. Twenty-three years later, in 1983, Pennsylvania established the Pennsylvania State System of Higher Education (PASSHE), the largest provider of higher education in the Commonwealth, of which Edinboro is part.

    That same year, continued development of undergraduate liberal arts programs and advanced graduate degrees earned Edinboro university status.

    Today, Edinboro University sits on 585 sprawling acres. As led by President Dale-Elizabeth Pehrsson, it continues to develop and evolve as northwestern Pennsylvania's largest university. The institution's name has changed and its focus has expanded over the decades, but its core mission of challenging and supporting students in their pursuit of academic excellence remains constant.

     

    Sours: https://www.edinboro.edu/about/history/index.php

    You will also like:

    OUR HISTORY

    The bronze Richard T. Greener statue sits in front of the Thomas Cooper Library.

    Across more than two centuries, we've not only grown into South Carolina's flagship university. We've become more than our founders ever imagined possible.

     

    The University of South Carolina's journey to becoming an international leader in higher education is quite a story.

    While any history cannot be praised in sum, what we have achieved is possible thanks to countless individuals, moments and accomplishments. Learn more about our past, present and future.
     

    Explore South Carolina's Roots 

    In 2019, the university began an effort to examine and address historic context as well as to identify and include the contributions of marginalized and underrepresented people or groups whose voices have typically not been heard. Learn more about their objectives and progress.

    Running fountains in the reflecting pool surrounded by brick pathways and benches with a canopy of trees and the USC smokestack in the background.

    Understanding the university's broader story and sharing it with the world can be a painful reckoning. To those purposefully and inadvertently excluded over the years, however, it's a task long overdue. 

    With the coming recommendations and actions of the Presidential Commission on University History and our efforts to give new voice to events and individuals essential to our past, we believe we will all be better for it.

    Stroll down more than 200 years of memory lane with Remembering the Days, a University of South Carolina podcast. Join host Chris Horn for an exploration of the University of South Carolina from how we become known as the Gamecocks to the interesting world of 19th century campus pranks.

    Explore Episodes
    Collaged images and newspaper clippings with topographic lines and the text A UofSC Podcast Remembering the Days

    Just as our historic downtown campus is woven into the fabric of the Palmetto State, it's forever entwined with your time at South Carolina. And it's only getting better.

    Learn about signature architecture styles visible around campus, the medley of green spaces and gardens that create our urban oasis, and historic and modern monuments that beautify campus and share meaningful experiences and stories that might otherwise be lost.

    There are more than 7,000 trees across the campus, representing about 80 species. In just the oaks, we have live oak, laurel oak, willow oak, shumart oak, nuttall oak, overcup oak, Japanese blue oak, sawtooth oak, chestnut oak, white oak, southern red oak and black oak.

    Students sitting on a bench under a sprawling oak tree.
    Sours: https://sc.edu/about/our_history/index.php


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