Acetazolamide er

Acetazolamide er DEFAULT

Equivalence of conventional and sustained release oral dosage formulations of acetazolamide in primary open angle glaucoma.


1. Outpatients with primary open angle glaucoma uncontrolled on single topical therapy with either pilocarpine or timolol were recruited for a stratified double dummy cross over trial. Once or twice daily sustained release acetazolamide (SRA) was compared with an identical regimen of conventional tablets (CA). 2. During the run in period the patients received mg SRA once or twice daily as needed to control intraocular pressure (IOP). The dose was thereafter kept constant and patients were allocated randomly to 4 weeks treatment with CA followed by 4 weeks SRA or vice versa. IOP and venous plasma concentrations of acetazolamide were measured at weekly intervals. At the end of each 4 week course, patients were admitted for a 24 h profile of IOP and drug concentration measurements. 3. Thirty-five patients were recruited, but eleven were withdrawn during the run in period largely because of adverse effects; these became less troublesome when it was decided to give the once daily dose at h. Four were withdrawn during the cross over, two because of inadequate IOP control. Twenty completed the trial. 4. The morning plasma concentration of acetazolamide measured each week showed no tendency to accumulation during the study. The mean swing (maximum minus minimum) in plasma acetazolamide concentration during the 24 h profile was less (P less than ) with the SR formulation ( +/- ; mg l-1) +/- s.d.) than with the conventional ( +/- ) but the mean concentrations over the 24 h profile were indistinguishable (P greater than ; +/- and +/- respectively). 5. Satisfactory control of IOP (no more than one reading above 22 mmHg) was maintained despite the changes in formulation in all but two of the patients who entered the cross over study. No close relationship between IOP and plasma concentration of acetazolamide was found. The 24 h IOP profiles whilst receiving each of the formulations were indistinguishable; thus the smoothing of the plasma drug concentration profile achieved by the SR formulation did not reduce the amplitude of swings in IOP. Similarly, no difference was observed between the formulations with respect to adverse effects. 6. It is concluded that the SR and conventional formulations were equivalent with respect to mean plasma acetazolamide concentration, IOP control and adverse effects. The SR formulation did not show practical advantages over the conventional formulation which was equally effective even with dosage intervals of 12 or 24 h.

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Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.

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Increasing the dose does not increase the diuresis and may increase the incidence of drowsiness and/or paresthesia. Increasing the dose often results in a decrease in diuresis. Under certain circumstances, however, very large doses have been given in conjunction with other diuretics in order to secure diuresis in complete refractory failure.

Information for Patients

Adverse reactions common to all sulfonamide derivatives may occur: anaphylaxis, fever, rash (including erythema multiforme, Steven-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis), crystalluria, renal calculus, bone marrow depression, thrombocytopenic purpura, hemolytic anemia, leukopenia, pancytopenia, and agranulocytosis. Caution is advised for early detection of such reactions and the drug should be discontinued and appropriate therapy instituted.

In patients with pulmonary obstruction or emphysema where alveolar ventilation may be impaired, Acetazolamide which may precipitate or aggravate acidosis should be used with caution. Gradual ascent is desirable to try to avoid acute mountain sickness. If rapid ascent is undertaken and Acetazolamide is used, it should be noted that such use does not obviate the need for prompt descent if severe forms of high altitude sickness occur, i.e., high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) or high altitude cerebral edema.

Caution is advised for patients receiving concomitant high-dose aspirin and Acetazolamide, as anorexia, tachypnea, lethargy, metabolic acidosis, coma, and death have been reported (see WARNINGS).

Both increases and decreases in blood glucose have been described in patients treated with Acetazolamide. This should be taken into consideration in patients with impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes mellitus.

Acetazolamide treatment may cause electrolyte imbalances, including hyponatremia and hypokalemia, as well as metabolic acidosis. Therefore, periodic monitoring of serum electrolytes is recommended. Particular caution is recommended in patients with conditions that are associated with, or predispose a patient to, electrolyte and acid/base imbalances, such as patients with impaired renal function (including elderly patients; see PRECAUTIONS, Geriatric Use), patients with diabetes mellitus, and patients with impaired alveolar ventilation.

Some adverse reactions to Acetazolamide, such as drowsiness, fatigue, and myopia, may impair the ability to drive and operate machinery.

Laboratory Tests

To monitor for hematologic reactions common to all sulfonamides, it is recommended that a baseline CBC and platelet count be obtained on patients prior to initiating Acetazolamide therapy and at regular intervals during therapy. If significant changes occur, early discontinuance and institution of appropriate therapy are important. Periodic monitoring of serum electrolytes is recommended.

Drug Interactions

Aspirin- See WARNINGSAcetazolamide modifies phenytoin metabolism with increased serum levels of phenytoin. This may increase or enhance the occurrence of osteomalacia in some patients receiving chronic phenytoin therapy. Caution is advised in patients receiving chronic concomitant therapy. By decreasing the gastrointestinal absorption of primidone, Acetazolamide may decrease serum concentrations of primidone and its metabolites, with a consequent possible decrease in anticonvulsant effect. Caution is advised when beginning, discontinuing, or changing the dose of Acetazolamide in patients receiving primidone.

Because of possible additive effects with other carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, concomitant use is not advisable.

Acetazolamide may increase the effects of other folic acid antagonists.

Acetazolamide decreases urinary excretion of amphetamine and may enhance the magnitude and duration of their effect.

Acetazolamide reduces urinary excretion of quinidine and may enhance its effect.

Acetazolamide may prevent the urinary antiseptic effect of methenamine.

Acetazolamide increases lithium excretion and the lithium may be decreased.

Acetazolamide and sodium bicarbonate used concurrently increases the risk of renal calculus formation.

Acetazolamide may elevate cyclosporine levels.


Sulfonamides may give false negative or decreased values for urinary phenolsulfonphthalein and phenol red elimination values for urinary protein, serum non-protein, and serum uric acid. Acetazolamide may produce an increased level of crystals in the urine.

Acetazolamide interferes with the HPLC method of assay for theophylline. Interference with the theophylline assay by Acetazolamide depends on the solvent used in the extraction; Acetazolamide may not interfere with other assay methods for theophylline.

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

Long-term studies in animals to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of Acetazolamide have not been conducted. In a bacterial mutagenicity assay,

Acetazolamide was not mutagenic when evaluated with and without metabolic activation.

The drug had no effect on fertility when administered in the diet to male and female rats at a daily intake of up to 4 times the recommended human dose of mg in a 50 kg individual.


Teratogenic Effects

Pregnancy Category C

Acetazolamide, administered orally or parenterally, has been shown to be teratogenic (defects of the limbs) in mice, rats, hamsters, and rabbits. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Acetazolamide should be used in pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.

Nursing Mothers

Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from Acetazolamide, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother. Acetazolamide should only be used by nursing women if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the child.

Pediatric Use

The safety and effectiveness of Acetazolamide Extended-Release Capsules in pediatric patients below the age of 12 years have not been established. Growth retardation has been reported in children receiving long-term therapy, believed secondary to chronic acidosis.

Geriatric Use

Metabolic acidosis, which can be severe, may occur in the elderly with reduced renal function.

In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and concomitant disease or other drug therapy.

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  2. Heartiste gab
  3. Good name meanings


pronounced as (a set a zole' a mide)

Acetazolamide is used to treat glaucoma, a condition in which increased pressure in the eye can lead to gradual loss of vision. Acetazolamide decreases the pressure in the eye. Acetazolamide is also used to reduce the severity and duration of symptoms (upset stomach, headache, shortness of breath, dizziness, drowsiness, and fatigue) of altitude (mountain) sickness. Acetazolamide is used with other medicines to reduce edema (excess fluid retention) and to help control seizures in certain types of epilepsy.

This medication is sometimes prescribed for other uses; ask your doctor or pharmacist for more information.

Acetazolamide comes as a tablet and capsule to take by mouth. Follow the directions on your prescription label carefully, and ask your doctor or pharmacist to explain any part you do not understand. Take acetazolamide exactly as directed. Do not take more or less of it or take it more often than prescribed by your doctor.

If you are taking the extended-release (long-acting) form of acetazolamide (Diamox Sequels), do not crush or chew the capsules.

Before taking acetazolamide,

  • tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to acetazolamide, sulfa drugs, diuretics ('water pills'), or any other drugs.
  • tell your doctor and pharmacist what prescription and nonprescription medications you are taking, especially amphetamines, aspirin, cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune), medications for depression or irregular heartbeat, diflunisal (Dolobid), digoxin (Lanoxin), diuretics ('water pills'), lithium (Eskalith, Lithobid), phenobarbital, primidone (Mysoline), and vitamins.
  • tell your doctor if you have or have ever had heart, liver, or kidney disease; or diabetes.
  • tell your doctor if you are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding. If you become pregnant while taking acetazolamide, call your doctor immediately.
  • if you are having surgery, including dental surgery, tell the doctor or dentist that you are taking acetazolamide.
  • you should know that this drug may make you drowsy. Do not drive a car or operate machinery until you know how this drug affects you.
  • remember that alcohol can add to the drowsiness caused by this drug.
  • plan to avoid unnecessary or prolonged exposure to sunlight and to wear protective clothing, sunglasses, and sunscreen. Acetazolamide may make your skin sensitive to sunlight.

Take the missed dose as soon as you remember it. However, if it is almost time for the next dose, skip the missed dose and continue your regular dosing schedule. Do not take a double dose to make up for the missed one.

Keep this medication in the container it came in, tightly closed, and out of reach of children. Store it at room temperature and away from excess heat and moisture (not in the bathroom).

It is important to keep all medication out of sight and reach of children as many containers (such as weekly pill minders and those for eye drops, creams, patches, and inhalers) are not child-resistant and young children can open them easily. To protect young children from poisoning, always lock safety caps and immediately place the medication in a safe location – one that is up and away and out of their sight and reach.

Unneeded medications should be disposed of in special ways to ensure that pets, children, and other people cannot consume them. However, you should not flush this medication down the toilet. Instead, the best way to dispose of your medication is through a medicine take-back program. Talk to your pharmacist or contact your local garbage/recycling department to learn about take-back programs in your community. See the FDA's Safe Disposal of Medicines website ( for more information if you do not have access to a take-back program.

In case of overdose, call the poison control helpline at Information is also available online at If the victim has collapsed, had a seizure, has trouble breathing, or can't be awakened, immediately call emergency services at

Keep all appointments with your doctor and the laboratory. Your doctor will order certain tests to check your response to acetazolamide.

Do not let anyone else to take your medication. Ask your pharmacist any questions you have about refilling your prescription.

It is important for you to keep a written list of all of the prescription and nonprescription (over-the-counter) medicines you are taking, as well as any products such as vitamins, minerals, or other dietary supplements. You should bring this list with you each time you visit a doctor or if you are admitted to a hospital. It is also important information to carry with you in case of emergencies.

Last Revised - 09/15/

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Wilderness Medicine: Altitude Illness - Diamox (Acetazolamide)


Er acetazolamide


Wilderness Medicine: Altitude Illness - Diamox (Acetazolamide)


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