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Mireles, Edmundo Eduardo (1905–1987)

Edmundo Eduardo Mireles, one of the founders of bilingual education in Texas, was born in Parral, Chihuahua, Mexico, on November 20, 1905, the son of Sostenes Mireles, a merchant. His mother died eight months after his birth, and his paternal grandmother raised him in Sacramento, Coahuila, Mexico, until 1913, when his father remarried and moved to San Antonio. There Edmundo learned English. Mireles accompanied his father to Mexico to fight in the Mexican Revolution and was wounded. He attended the San Fernando Parochial School, Sam Houston School, Navarro School, John D. Hood School, and Main Avenue High, where he graduated in 1926. Mireles went to the University of Texas and was one of about 250 Mexican-descent college students in Texas in 1930. He belonged to the Club Latino Americano, and in 1929–30 he served as an editor and business manager of El Universitario, the club's official organ and the first Latino newspaper at the University of Texas. He majored in linguistics and graduated from UT in 1931. After graduation he moved to San Antonio, where he taught night school at Main Avenue and where he initiated a night school at Sidney Lanier School. His wife, whom he married in 1935, was Jovita González de Mireles, a folklorist and teacher. They had met at the University of Texas. The couple had no children. Edmundo Mireles joined Council 16 of the League of United Latin American Citizens in San Antonio and later joined Council 18 in Del Rio. From 1933 to 1939 he worked at the San Felipe Independent School District in Del Rio as high school principal and helped organize Club Politico Latino, a political organization. In 1939 he moved to Corpus Christi, where he taught fifth grade at Southgate School. Mireles returned to the University of Texas in 1940 for graduate work. In Corpus Christi he became active with LULAC, serving as editor of the LULAC News from 1944 through January 1945. As president of LULAC in 1945 he supported an antidiscrimination bill introduced by state legislator J. Franklin Spears. From 1943 to 1946 he was also active with the Pan American Council, a group composed of Anglos and Latinos that sponsored Columbus Day and Pan-American activities, and for which he served as president in 1944. He also ran unsuccessfully for state representative.

On March 4, 1941, the Texas legislature passed a bill legalizing the teaching of Spanish in public schools, which ended the state's English-only policy adopted in 1917. From 1940 to 1965 Mireles coordinated and supervised instruction for the Corpus Christi Spanish Program for the third through ninth grades. In 1940 he oversaw seventy-one teachers and 5,183 children, and by 1950, 180 teachers and 9,903 children. The program stressed conversation and education in Spanish, Mexican, and Latin-American culture, literature, and history. In a climate of Pan-Americanism the Spanish program spread across at least thirty-nine school districts in Texas and influenced the teaching of foreign languages in the United States. Mireles's article "? Habla Ud. Inglés?" (Do You Speak English?) appeared in Time magazine on February 14, 1944. His program garnered national attention, and he received letters of support from Eleanor Roosevelt and Nelson Rockefeller. Mireles believed that monolingualism was "the greatest barrier to international understanding." He thought learning Spanish was necessary to avoid "linguistic isolation," to promote "good neighborliness," and to promote "bilingual competence." He also believed his program fostered pride among Spanish-speaking children. Mireles wrote or cowrote several textbooks and books, including Mi Libro Español, Libro Uno (cowritten with R. B. Fisher and Jovita in 1941) and Libro Dos and Libro Tres (cowritten with Jovita in 1943). These texts contained lessons on Spanish missions in Texas and on Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, Martín De León, Lorenzo de Zavala, and Father Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla. In 1945 he cowrote Manual and Classroom Guide for Hablemos Español. He and Jovita cowrote six books for six levels, called ElEspañol Elemental (1949), which included folksongs like "Las Mañanitas" and "Allá en el Rancho Grande." Magazines in which he published included Texas Outlook (now the Texas State Teachers Association Advocate) and the American School Board Journal; newspapers for which he wrote included Las Noticias (in Del Rio), the Brownsville Herald, and the Corpus Christi Caller-Times. In the 1940s he edited El Progresso and the Texas Mexican Gazette, both Corpus Christi newspapers. Over a period of twenty-five years he also gave radio talks in Corpus Christi. In 1952 Mireles obtained a masters degree from the Instituto Tecnológico de Monterrey. After 1959 he worked with adult education classes, the Little School of the 400, and Head Start. Mireles knew eight languages. He died on March 18, 1987, of natural causes.

Sours: https://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/fmi90

Lataly Brasier de maternidad sin aro para dormir y amamantar. Paquete de 5.

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Características:
Material: 92% nailon, 8% elastano.
Sujetador de lactancia.
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Función de lactancia con clip.
Lavar a mano.
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Estilo de la copa: bralette.
Tipo de cable: sin cables.
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Estilo de cierre: gancho trasero.
El tejido elástico se ajusta a tus fluctuaciones de tamaño.
Diseño en forma de U para mayor comodidad.
Una mano fácil de abrir y cerrar clip.
Tallas: Mujeres, Maternidad
El tejido elástico se ajusta a tus fluctuaciones de tamaño. La correa interior mantiene la correa del hombro en su lugar. Diseño en forma de U para mayor comodidad. Una mano fácil de abrir y cerrar clip. Cierre trasero.

Sours: https://www.amazon.com/-/es/Lataly-Brasier-maternidad-amamantar-Paquete/dp/B076DCMT5F
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Type III atresia coli with underdeveloped colon and hydroperitoneum in a newborn foal

CLINIC AND SURGERY • Cienc. Rural 50 (10) • 2020 • https://doi.org/10.1590/0103-8478cr20190494copy

Atresia coli tipo III com subdesenvolvimento de cólon e hidroperitôneo em neonato equino

A 48-hour-old mixed breed pony colt was referred to the hospital because of abdominal discomfort, weak suckling reflex and prostration. During clinical investigation, supportive and symptomatic treatments were necessary, and an abdominal radiography was performed revealing a large intestine filled with feces and large amounts of gas, in addition to free fluid in the cavity. After 3 days of treatment, the foal had not yet defecated, thus exploratory abdominal surgery was indicated, but the owners declined. Therefore, the foal was humanly euthanized. Post-mortem examination revealed complete absence of the pelvic flexure. Subsequent portions of the dorsal, transverse and small colons were intensely reduced. In addition, at the abdominal cavity there was 850 ml of yellowish translucent liquid. These findings are compatible with hydroperitoneum and type III atresia coli at the pelvic flexure, associated with underdevelopment of the dorsal, transverse and small colons.

Key words:
colic; neonatology; congenital malformation.

Um pônei mestiço de 48 horas de vida foi encaminhado ao hospital para avaliação por desconforto abdominal, diminuição do reflexo de sucção e prostração. Durante a investigação clínica, tratamentos de suporte e sintomáticos foram necessários, e radiografia abdominal foi realizada revelando cólon maior repleto de fezes e grandes quantidades de gás, além de fluido livre na cavidade. Após três dias de tratamento, o potro ainda não havia defecado, sendo a laparotomia exploratória indicada, mas os proprietários recusaram. Portanto, o potro foi humanamente eutanasiado. O exame post-mortem revelou ausência completa da flexura pélvica. Porções subseqüentes dos cólons dorsal, cólon transverso e cólon menor se apresentaram intensamente reduzidas. Além disso, na cavidade abdominal havia 850 ml de líquido translúcido amarelado. Esses achados são compatíveis com o hidroperitônio e a atresia coli tipo III na flexura pélvica, associados ao subdesenvolvimento dos cólons dorsal, transverso e menor.

Palavras-chave:
cólica; neonatologia; má-formação congênita

Abdominal pain in foals is a diagnostic challenge; therefore, a good physical examination is critical when assessing a colicky foal (BOHANON, 2005BOHANON, C.T. Colic in the equine neonate. In: North American Veterinary Conference, 2005, Orlando, United States of America. Proceedings… Orlando: NAVC, 2005. p.129-131. Online. Available from: <https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/b80b/4662cfc87da432f528a29cc>.
https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/b80b/46... ). Colic starting at birth or shortly thereafter can be caused by meconium impaction, uroperitoneum or fecoliths, and also congenital disorders such as atresia coli, aganglionosis and hypoganglionosis (CHAFFIN et al., 1999CHAFFIN, M.K. et al. Diagnostic assessment of Foals with Colic. In: Annual Convention of the American Association of Equine Practitioners, 1999, Albuquerque, United States of America. Proceedings… Albuquerque: AAEP, 1999. p.235-242. Online. Available from: <Available from: http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.500.1279&rep=rep1& >. Accessed: Jun. 24, 2019.
http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/dow... ; BOHANON, 2005). Since physical examination has limitations to differentiate between surgical and non-surgical lesions, complementary exams are paramount. Peritoneal fluid analysis, nasogastric intubation, radiography and ultrasonography are indicated. Since rectal examination is not possible in young foals, abdominal radiography is very useful to access gas distention and the use of contrast allows better evaluation of obstructions. Ultrasonography provides information on gas distention, fluid accumulation and intussusception (BOHANON, 2005).

Intestinal atresia should be suspected when there is no fecal material on the anus, with presence of clear mucus, absence of meconium staining following repeated enemas, progressive abdominal distention and pain on a neonate (YOUNG et al., 1992YOUNG, R.L. et al. Atresia coli in the foal: a review of six cases. Equine Veterinary Journal, v.1, n. 24, p. 60-62, 1992. Available from: <Available from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10 . Accessed: Jun. 24, 2019
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/... ; VATISTAS et al., 1996VATISTAS, N.J. et al. Surgical treatment for colic in the foal (67 cases): 1980-1992. Equine Veterinary Journal, v.28, n.2, p.139-145, 1996. Available from: <Available from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.2042-3306.1996.tb01606.x?sid=nlm%3Apubmed >. Accessed: Jun. 24, 2019. doi: 10.1111/j.2042-3306.1996.tb01606.x.
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/... ; CHAFFIN et al., 1999CHAFFIN, M.K. et al. Diagnostic assessment of Foals with Colic. In: Annual Convention of the American Association of Equine Practitioners, 1999, Albuquerque, United States of America. Proceedings… Albuquerque: AAEP, 1999. p.235-242. Online. Available from: <Available from: http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.500.1279&rep=rep1& >. Accessed: Jun. 24, 2019.
http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/dow... ; BIASUTTI et al., 2017BIASUTTI, S. et al. End-to-side anastomosis of the left ventral colon to the small colon in a neonatal foal with segmental agenesis of the large colon. Australian Veterinary Journal, v.95, n.6, p.217-219, 2017. Available from: <Available from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111 >. Accessed: Jun. 24, 2019.
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/... ). It is a rare cause of colic that affects 0.44-3.1% of the equine neonates within the first 24-48h of life, resembling meconium impaction (BARTMANN et al., 2002BARTMANN, C.P. et al. Diagnosis and surgical management of Colic in the Foal: Literature Review and a Retrospective Study. Clinical Techniques in Equine Practice, v.1, n.3, p.125-142, 2002. Available from: <Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/ S1534751602800117 >. Accessed: Jun. 24, 2019. doi: 10.1053/ctep.2002.35574.
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/ar... ; BIASUTTI et al., 2017). There are three types of atresia: type I is a membrane atresia, when there is a complete diaphragm obstructing the intestinal lumen, type II is a cord atresia, with blind ends of intestine joined by a fibrous and/or muscular cord, and type III is a blind-end atresia, characterized by a complete absence of an intestinal segment with a gap in the mesentery, accompanied by short bowel. It is believed that atresia coli is caused by a persistent occlusion of blood supply during the formation of the intestine (VAN DER GAAG et al., 1980VAN DER GAAG, I. et al. Intestinal atresia and stenosis in animals: A Report of 34 Cases. Veterinary Pathology, v.17, p.565-574, 1980. Available from: <Available from: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/030098588001700505 >. Accessed: Jun. 24, 2019. doi: 10.1177/030098588001700505.
https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.... ). Foals with atresia coli often have congenital anomalies in other organs, and these abnormalities should be investigated before attempting surgery (BARTMANN et al., 2002). Successful surgical repair is rare, but it has been described (SCHNEIDER et al., 1981SCHNEIDER, J.E. et al. Repair of congenital atresia of the colon in a foal. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science, v.1, p.121-126, 1981. Available from: <Available from: https://www.sciencedirecttype=pdf >. Accessed: Jun. 24, 2019.
https://www.sciencedirecttype=pdf... ; NAPPERT et al., 1992NAPPERT, G. et al. Atresia coli in 7 foals (1964-1990). Equine Veterinary Journal, v.24, p.57-60, 1992. Available from: < Available from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.2042-3306.1992.tb04790.x >. Accessed: Jun. 24, 2019. doi: 10.1111/j.2042-3306.1992.tb04790.x.
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/... ; BIASUTTI et al., 2017). In light of those considerations, the aim of this report was to describe the clinical and post-mortem features of colic in a newborn foal with colonic sub development.

A 48-h-old mixed breed pony colt foal was referred to the veterinary teaching hospital for assessment of abdominal discomfort, weak suckling reflex and prostration. Owners reported the foal stood and nursed shortly after birth but had a weak suckling reflex. The foal was observed to urinate and pass meconium in the first 24 hours, but a few hours later it started showing abdominal pain. Local veterinarian was called, who decided to refer it to a hospital after performing the enema unsuccessfully on property.

On presentation, the foal was lethargic and rolling, with moderate abdominal distention. Vital signs were as follow: temperature 38.7 ºC, heart rate 140 beats/minute, respiratory rate 54 breaths/minute, capillary refill time 2 seconds, and hyperemic mucous membranes. Auscultation of heart and lungs did not detect any abnormalities. Borborygmi were decreased, without any sound of ileocecal valve for 5 minutes. On digital rectal exam, only clear mucus was observed, without typical brown staining from meconium. Urine was concentrated and the foal constantly assumed a ventroflexed position with the limbs stretched out.

Laboratory work included a complete blood count and blood chemistry analysis (Table 1). Plasma was icteric, with hyperfibrinogenemia, neutrophilia and lymphopenia. There were hyper segmented and toxic neutrophils, activated monocytes and platelet aggregation. AST was below normal range; ALP was above normal limits and there was hypoproteinemia with low globulins.

Table 1
Hematological and biochemical profile of a 48-hour-old foal diagnosed with atresia coli type III at the Veterinary Hospital of the Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Transabdominal ultrasound was performed using a 5-MHz transducer. Small intestinal loops with normal wall thickness were observed, as well as small volume of peritoneal fluid and a mass near the ventral wall suggestive of impaction. Bladder was partially full and apparently intact. Abdominocentesis was not performed at this point due to the risk of enterocentesis.

During clinical investigation, supportive and symptomatic treatments were necessary and are described as follows. Initially, pain was moderate and controlled with flunixin meglumine(a) (1.1mg/kg IV q.8 h in the first 24h and then when necessary) and short walks. Symptomatic treatment included ranitidine(b) (2 mg/kg IV TID), penicillin(c) (22000UI/kg IM SID), gentamicin(d) (6.6mg/kg IV SID) and ceftiofur(e) (4.4 mg/kg IM BID). Omeprazole(f) were administered once at a dosage of 4mg/kg PO. Frequent enemas with Vaseline(g) and warm water and stomach decompression via nasogastric tube were performed until presumptive diagnosis was reached. It is known that duodenal distention and reflux can cause abdominal distention in foals. Enemas were followed by clear mucus elimination, which was highly suggestive of atresia coli. Therapy with antibiotics was elected based on complete blood count, which was suggestive of sepsis. Central venous catheter was placed in the jugular vein and fluid therapy was instituted based in the Holliday-Seagar formula with Ringer’s lactate solution supplemented with glucose 5% and potassium.

At the end of day 1 of hospitalization, the foal had not yet defecated, and enemas resulted in clear mucus, without feces in the rectum. Urine was diluted and abundant. Since there was no reflux at this point and the foal manifested interest in nursing, nasogastric tube was removed, allowing the foal to nurse and walk every hour. Blood glucose levels remained around 130-180mg/dL.

On day 2, abdominal distention was intense, and the foal had stopped nursing. Nasogastric tube was placed again, recovering 1L of spontaneous reflux. Blood gas and electrolytes analysis revealed low oxygen saturation with an increase in bicarbonate and decrease in anion gap (Table 2). Reflux stopped at the end of the day. In order to protect gastric mucosa and to help reduce abdominal distention, a solution(h) containing aluminum hydroxide, magnesium hydroxide and simethicone was administered, and nasogastric tube was removed again. Initially, several attempts to feed the foal were made before complete food withdraw due to worsening of abdominal distension. Nasogastric tube was placed once again, and all the nursed milk recovered. At this point, blood glucose dropped to 80mg/dL and remained on this level.

Table 2
Blood gas and electrolyte profile of a 48-hour-old foal diagnosed with atresia coli type III at the Veterinary Hospital of the Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Abdominal radiography was performed on day 3, revealing a large intestine filled with feces and large amounts of gas, in addition to free fluid in the cavity (Figures 1 and 2). Peritoneal fluid sample was referred to the laboratory with a paired serum sample. Both peritoneal fluid and serum samples were with normal range for equine species (GRINDEM et al., 1990GRINDEM, C.B. et al. Peritoneal fluid values from healthy foals. Equine Veterinary Journal, v.25, n.5, p.359-361, 1990. Available from: <Available from: https://beva.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.2042-3306. 1990.tb04290.x?sid=nlm%3Apubmed >. Accessed: Nov. 13, 2019. doi: 10.1111/j.2042-3306.1990.tb04290.x.
https://beva.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi... ). Based on the results, uroperitoneum was excluded from the differential diagnosis and presumptive diagnosis was complete intestinal obstruction, probably due to meconium impaction. Due to the presence of nasogastric reflux and the possibility of meconium impaction with distention, contrast radiography was not performed nor orally neither via rectum. Also, due to worsening of the clinical status and financial restraints, no further diagnostic procedures were made. Although bowel sounds and mucous membranes have shown improvement with medical treatment, the foal had not yet defecated until that moment. Exploratory abdominal surgery was also declined by the owners. Thus, after 60h of medical management, the foal was humanely euthanized.

Figure 1
Latero-lateral radiography showing a large amount of free fluid (black arrows) in the abdominal cavity of a 96-hour old pony foal diagnosed with atresia coli type III at the Veterinary Hospital of the Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Figure 2
Ventrodorsal radiography showing intestines filled with feces (black arrow) and gas (white arrow) in the abdominal cavity of a 96-hour old pony foal diagnosed with atresia coli type III at the Veterinary Hospital of the Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Post-mortem examination revealed absence of the pelvic flexure, associated with marked accumulation of meconium in the cecum and on the blind ending sac in the left ventral colon. Subsequent portions of the dorsal colons, transverse colon and small colon were intensely reduced. In its lumen, there was a slight accumulation of mucous contents. In addition, mucous membranes were discretely yellowish and in the abdominal cavity there were 850 ml of yellowish translucent liquid. These findings are compatible with hydroperitoneum and type III atresia coli at the pelvic flexure, associated with underdevelopment of the dorsal, transverse and small colons (Figure 3).

Figure 3
Type III atresia coli at the pelvic flexure (white arrow) and underdevelopment of large and small colon (black arrows) in a 96-hour old pony foal on post mortem examination at the Veterinary Hospital of the Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Colic in foals is a common condition and a diagnostic challenge. Normal meconium passage starts shortly after birth and continues for the first 24h (BOHANON, 2005BOHANON, C.T. Colic in the equine neonate. In: North American Veterinary Conference, 2005, Orlando, United States of America. Proceedings… Orlando: NAVC, 2005. p.129-131. Online. Available from: <https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/b80b/4662cfc87da432f528a29cc>.
https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/b80b/46... ). Since meconium impaction is the most common cause of obstruction and colic in foals, it was the first suspicion on the differential diagnostic list for the foal here reported. It is possible that owners may have observed the passage of a small amount of meconium formed in the most caudal portions of the intestine, since all the remaining meconium was accumulated cranially to the atresia coli.

Despite the fact that uroperitonium does not lead to obstruction, it was considered a possibility, once the patient showed strangury with ventroflexed posture and limbs stretched out. However, the foal urinated large volumes, while abdominal ultrasound did not show enough free fluid in the abdominal cavity and bladder was intact. Later, after laboratory analysis, free fluid in the abdomen seen in radiographs was not considered urine. Fecaliths were considered another possible cause of gastrointestinal obstruction without vascular impairment. Based on this suspicion, surgical intervention would have both diagnostic and therapeutic value (CHAFFIN et al., 1999CHAFFIN, M.K. et al. Diagnostic assessment of Foals with Colic. In: Annual Convention of the American Association of Equine Practitioners, 1999, Albuquerque, United States of America. Proceedings… Albuquerque: AAEP, 1999. p.235-242. Online. Available from: <Available from: http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.500.1279&rep=rep1& >. Accessed: Jun. 24, 2019.
http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/dow... ; BOHANON, 2005BOHANON, C.T. Colic in the equine neonate. In: North American Veterinary Conference, 2005, Orlando, United States of America. Proceedings… Orlando: NAVC, 2005. p.129-131. Online. Available from: <https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/b80b/4662cfc87da432f528a29cc>.
https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/b80b/46... ).

Although rare, atresia coli was another probable cause of obstruction; yet the presence of nasogastric reflux did not allow oral administration of barium solutions to perform contrast radiography. It should be acknowledged that the use of contrast rectally could have confirmed diagnosis ante mortem. However, the possibility of meconium impaction and further distention of the rectum was our main concern. Also, the worsening of clinical signs and financial restraint limited additional diagnostic procedures. Atresia coli would have been diagnosed anyway should the owners have decided for exploratory laparotomy. Even though, medical treatment was still attempted until other probable causes were excluded or exploratory surgery authorized.

Complete blood count in this case was suggestive of sepsis and hypoproteinemia indicated that a failure of passive immunity might have occurred. Nevertheless, our foal did not manifest clinical signs consistent with sepsis. Abdominal ultrasound and radiographs were highly suggestive of a gastrointestinal obstruction, and we hypothesized this obstruction was the cause of both the inflammatory status seen in the laboratory analyses and hydroperitonium.

Since the patient showed no improvement with medical therapy and the owners declined surgery, euthanasia was recommended. Yellowish mucous membranes were attributed to the inability to feed the foal, since every attempt was followed by worsening of abdominal distention and need of nasogastric intubation. Hydroperitoneum was likely due to hypoproteinemia and abdominal inflammation. It is important to observe that this foal had two congenital abnormalities in the colon: type III atresia coli at the pelvic flexure and hypoplasia of the large colon caudal to the atresia. Considering this situation, the odds of a successful surgical intervention were minimal.

Although atresia coli is a rare condition in foals, it must be considered when dealing with a newborn foal with abdominal pain and distension. Clinicians should pay special attention when colic resembling meconium impaction responds poorly to medical management, especially if there is no brown staining after repeated enemas and no clinical signs that suggest strangulating intestinal lesions.

This project was financed in part by the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES), Brasil - Finance code 001. We thank the Ministério da Educação (MEC) for financing the Multiprofessional Residency at UFMG, which allowed the participation of I.A. ROCHA, J.G. OLIVEIRA, T.C. CASTRO, T.N.S. BISPO, S.A.C. MARCELINO and M.T.G. CAMPOS in this project.

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    » https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111

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    » https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/b80b/4662cfc87da432f528a29cc

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  • CHAFFIN, M.K. et al. Diagnostic assessment of Foals with Colic. In: Annual Convention of the American Association of Equine Practitioners, 1999, Albuquerque, United States of America. Proceedings… Albuquerque: AAEP, 1999. p.235-242. Online. Available from: <Available from: http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.500.1279&rep=rep1& >. Accessed: Jun. 24, 2019.
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  • CRUZ, R. K. S. et al. Electrolyte, blood gas and electrocardiographic profile of neonatal foals in the first 48 hours of life. Acta Scientiae Veterinariae. v.43, p.1321-1327, 2015. Available from: <Available from: http://www.ufrgs.br/actavet/43/PUB%201321 >. Accessed: Nov. 13, 2019.
    » http://www.ufrgs.br/actavet/43/PUB%201321

  • GRINDEM, C.B. et al. Peritoneal fluid values from healthy foals. Equine Veterinary Journal, v.25, n.5, p.359-361, 1990. Available from: <Available from: https://beva.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.2042-3306. 1990.tb04290.x?sid=nlm%3Apubmed >. Accessed: Nov. 13, 2019. doi: 10.1111/j.2042-3306.1990.tb04290.x.
    » https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2042-3306.1990.tb04290.x.» https://beva.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.2042-3306. 1990.tb04290.x?sid=nlm%3Apubmed

  • HARVEY, J. W. Veterinary Hematology: A Diagnostic Guide and Color Atlas. St. Louis: Elsevier/Saunders, 2012.

  • HUGLES, J.; BARDELL, B. Determination of reference intervals for equine arterial blood-gas, acid-base and electrolyte analyses. Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia, v.46, n.6, p.765-771, 2019. Available from: <Available from: https://www.vaajournal.org/article/S1467-2987(19)30141-2/fulltext >. Accessed: Nov. 13, 2019. doi: 10.1016/j.vaa.2019.04.015.
    » https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaa.2019.04.015.» https://www.vaajournal.org/article/S1467-2987(19)30141-2/fulltext

  • KANEKO, J. J.; BRUSS, M. L. Bioquímica Clínica de Animais Domésticos. San Diego: Academic Press, 1997.

  • MEYER, D. J. et al. Medicina de laboratório veterinária: interpretação e diagnóstico. São Paulo: Roca, 1995.

  • NAPPERT, G. et al. Atresia coli in 7 foals (1964-1990). Equine Veterinary Journal, v.24, p.57-60, 1992. Available from: < Available from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.2042-3306.1992.tb04790.x >. Accessed: Jun. 24, 2019. doi: 10.1111/j.2042-3306.1992.tb04790.x.
    » https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2042-3306.1992.tb04790.x.» https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.2042-3306.1992.tb04790.x

  • SCHNEIDER, J.E. et al. Repair of congenital atresia of the colon in a foal. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science, v.1, p.121-126, 1981. Available from: <Available from: https://www.sciencedirecttype=pdf >. Accessed: Jun. 24, 2019.
    » https://www.sciencedirecttype=pdf

  • VAN DER GAAG, I. et al. Intestinal atresia and stenosis in animals: A Report of 34 Cases. Veterinary Pathology, v.17, p.565-574, 1980. Available from: <Available from: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/030098588001700505 >. Accessed: Jun. 24, 2019. doi: 10.1177/030098588001700505.
    » https://doi.org/10.1177/030098588001700505.» https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/030098588001700505

  • VATISTAS, N.J. et al. Surgical treatment for colic in the foal (67 cases): 1980-1992. Equine Veterinary Journal, v.28, n.2, p.139-145, 1996. Available from: <Available from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.2042-3306.1996.tb01606.x?sid=nlm%3Apubmed >. Accessed: Jun. 24, 2019. doi: 10.1111/j.2042-3306.1996.tb01606.x.
    » https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2042-3306.1996.tb01606.x.» https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.2042-3306.1996.tb01606.x?sid=nlm%3Apubmed

  • YOUNG, R.L. et al. Atresia coli in the foal: a review of six cases. Equine Veterinary Journal, v.1, n. 24, p. 60-62, 1992. Available from: <Available from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10 Accessed: Jun. 24, 2019
    » https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10

  • Publication in this collection
    14 Sept 2020
  • Date of issue
    2020
  • Received
    01 July 2019
  • Accepted
    25 May 2020
  • Reviewed
    23 July 2020
Izabela de Assis Rocha *

Department of Veterinary Science, University of Kentucky (UK), 40546-0099, Lexington, Kentucky (KY) , United States of America (USA)..

Jéssica Guerra de Oliveira

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciência Animal, Área de Concentração em Medicina e Cirurgia Veterinárias, Escola de Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil.

Tatiana de Carvalho Castro

Regimento de Polícia Montada 9 de Julho, Polícia Militar do Estado de São Paulo (PMESP), SP, São Paulo, Brasil.

Tâmiles Naiara dos Santos Bispo

Médica Veterinária Autônoma, CRMV-BA no 4701, Simões Filho, BA, Brasil.

Sóstenes Apolo Correia Marcelino

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciência Animal, Área de Concentração em Patologia Animal, Escola de Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil.

Marco Túlio Gomes Campos

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciência Animal, Área de Concentração em Medicina e Cirurgia Veterinárias, Escola de Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil.

Felipe Pierezan

Departamento de Clínica e Cirurgia Veterinárias, Escola de Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil.

Paulo Ricardo de Oliveira Paes

Departamento de Clínica e Cirurgia Veterinárias, Escola de Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil.

Raffaella Bertoni Cavalcanti Teixeira

Departamento de Clínica e Cirurgia Veterinárias, Escola de Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil.

Maristela Silveira Palhares

Departamento de Clínica e Cirurgia Veterinárias, Escola de Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil.

Renata de Pino Albuquerque Maranhão

Departamento de Clínica e Cirurgia Veterinárias, Escola de Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil.

E-mail: [email protected] *Corresponding author

DECLARATION OF CONFLICT OF INTERESTS

The authors declare no conflict of interest. The founding sponsors had no role in the design of the study; in the collection, analyses, or interpretation of data; in the writing of the manuscript, and in the decision to publish the results.

AUTHORS’ CONTRIBUTIONS

All authors contributed equally for the conception and writing of the manuscript. All authors critically revised the manuscript and approved of the final version.

Figure 1
Latero-lateral radiography showing a large amount of free fluid (black arrows) in the abdominal cavity of a 96-hour old pony foal diagnosed with atresia coli type III at the Veterinary Hospital of the Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Figure 2
Ventrodorsal radiography showing intestines filled with feces (black arrow) and gas (white arrow) in the abdominal cavity of a 96-hour old pony foal diagnosed with atresia coli type III at the Veterinary Hospital of the Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Figure 3
Type III atresia coli at the pelvic flexure (white arrow) and underdevelopment of large and small colon (black arrows) in a 96-hour old pony foal on post mortem examination at the Veterinary Hospital of the Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Table 1
Hematological and biochemical profile of a 48-hour-old foal diagnosed with atresia coli type III at the Veterinary Hospital of the Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Table 2
Blood gas and electrolyte profile of a 48-hour-old foal diagnosed with atresia coli type III at the Veterinary Hospital of the Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Brazil.

-----------------------------HEMATOLOGY---------------------------------------REFERENCE RANGE1---------------
----------Plasma physical appearance: discretely icteric-----------Colorless to light yellow plasma
Fibrinogen600 mg/dL100 - 400 mg/dL
Red blood cells9.05 million/mm36.6 - 11 million/mm3
Hemoglobin14 g/dL11 - 16 g/dL
Hematocrit40 %30 - 44 %
MCV44.2 fL38 - 51 fL
MCHC35 %35 - 39 %
MCH15.47 pg13 - 19 pg
Total leucocytes8.450 / mm35.600 - 11.600 / mm3
Neutrophils90% (7.605/mm3)2.600 - 6.700 / mm3
Lymphocytes7% (591.5/mm3)1.100 - 5.700 / mm3
Monocytes3% (253.5/mm3)0 - 700 / mm3
Platelets298.000 / mm3100.000 - 308.000 / mm3
BLOOD SMEAR EVALUATION:
It was observed the presence of: Toxic neutrophils, hyper segmented neutrophils, activated monocytes and platelet aggregates.
1Reference: HARVEY, J. W. Veterinary Hematology: A Diagnostic Guide and Color Atlas. St. Louis: Elsevier/Saunders, 2012.
--------------------BLOOD BIOCHEMISTRY-------------------- -----------------REFERENCE RANGE 2----------------
Urea48.69 mg/dL21.4 - 51.5 mg/dL
Creatinine1.12 mg/dL0.4 - 2.2 mg/dL
ALT9.97 U/L3 - 23 U/L
AST190.78 U/L226 - 366 U/L
ALP1107 U/L86 - 295 U/L
GGT26.1 U/L6 - 32 U/L
Glucose35 mg/dL62 - 134 mg/dL
Total protein3.96 g/dL6 - 8 g/dL
Albumin2.51 g/dL2.4 - 4.1 g/dL
Globulins1.45 g/dL2.6 - 4 g/dL
2Reference:MEYER, D. J. et al. Medicina de laboratório veterinária: interpretação e diagnóstico. São Paulo: Roca, 1995.
REFERENCE RANGE3
pH7.4327.32 - 7.44
pCO246.3 mmHg38 - 46 mmHg
pO261.3 mmHg63 - 77 mmHg
sO287.5 %92 - 96 %
cK+3.2 mM2.4 - 4.7 mM
cNa+142 mM132 - 146 mM
cCl-109 mM99 - 109 mM
cHCO3-(P)c30.320 - 28
cBase(B)c5.5 mM3.51 - 9.39 mM
AnionGap K+5.9 mM12.08 - 16.62 mM
cLac1.61.1 - 2.3
----------------------------------------------------------------------------3References:--------------------------------------------------------------------------
CARLUCCIO, A. et al. CARLUCCIO, A. et al. Correlation between some arterial and venous blood gas parameters in healthy newborn Martina Franca donkey foals from birth to 96 hours of age. Theriogenology. v.87, p.173-178, 2017. Available from: <Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27667749 >. Accessed: Nov. 13, 2019. doi: 10.1016 /j.theriogenology.2016.08.021
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2766... Correlation between some arterial and venous blood gas parameters in healthy newborn Martina Franca donkey foals from birth to 96 hours of age. Theriogenology. v.87, p.173-178, 2017. Available from: <https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27667749>. Accessed: Nov. 13, 2019. doi: 10.1016 /j.theriogenology.2016.08.021.
CASTAGNETTI, C. et alCASTAGNETTI, C. et al. Venous blood lactate evaluation in equine neonatal intensive care. Theriogenology, v.73, n.3, p.343-357, 2010. Available from: < Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19962183 >. Accessed: Nov. 13, 2019. doi: 10.1016 / j.theriogenology.2009.09.018.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1996... . Venous blood lactate evaluation in equine neonatal intensive care. Theriogenology, v.73, n.3, p.343-357, 2010. Available from: <https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19962183>. Accessed: Nov. 13, 2019. doi: 10.1016/j.theriogenology.2009.09.018.
CRUZ, R. K. S. et alCRUZ, R. K. S. et al. Electrolyte, blood gas and electrocardiographic profile of neonatal foals in the first 48 hours of life. Acta Scientiae Veterinariae. v.43, p.1321-1327, 2015. Available from: <Available from: http://www.ufrgs.br/actavet/43/PUB%201321 >. Accessed: Nov. 13, 2019.
http://www.ufrgs.br/actavet/43/PUB%20132... . Electrolyte, blood gas and electrocardiographic profile of neonatal foals in the first 48 hours of life. Acta Scientiae Veterinariae. v.43, p.1321-1327, 2015. Available from: <http://www.ufrgs.br/actavet/43/PUB%201321>. Accessed: Nov. 13, 2019.
HUGLES, J.; BARDELL, B. HUGLES, J.; BARDELL, B. Determination of reference intervals for equine arterial blood-gas, acid-base and electrolyte analyses. Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia, v.46, n.6, p.765-771, 2019. Available from: <Available from: https://www.vaajournal.org/article/S1467-2987(19)30141-2/fulltext >. Accessed: Nov. 13, 2019. doi: 10.1016/j.vaa.2019.04.015.
https://www.vaajournal.org/article/S1467... Determination of reference intervals for equine arterial blood-gas, acid-base and electrolyte analyses. Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia, v.46, n.6, p.765-771, 2019. Available from: <https://www.vaajournal.org/article/S1467-2987(19)30141-2/fulltext>. Accessed: Nov. 13, 2019. doi: 10.1016/j.vaa.2019.04.015.
KANEKOKANEKO, J. J.; BRUSS, M. L. Bioquímica Clínica de Animais Domésticos. San Diego: Academic Press, 1997., J. J.; BRUSS, M. L. Bioquímica Clínica de Animais Domésticos. San Diego: Academic Press, 1997.

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Cómo se dice sostén en inglés

Translation of sostén in English:

sostén

support, n.

Definition of support ( US English | UK English )

Other words for support

masculine noun

  • 1

    es compañía y sostén de la vejezhe’s my support in my old age

    • Ninguno de los dos depende del sostén económico del otro.
    • Ese trabajo resultó el sostén económico fundamental de su familia.
    • Fue un golpe directo al sostén económico del imperio británico.
    • Se había eliminado el principal sostén de la causa federal en el interior.
    • El deseo del jugador es el principal sostén.
    • Pues ahora a ello se le agrega ser los principales sostenes del Fisco.
    • Su madre debió ser el verdadero sostén de la familia.
    • Los amantes contribuyen como nadie al sostén de la familia.
    • El sostén de las familias es importante y los jóvenes lo utilizan.
    • Mi mujer no trabaja y soy el único sostén de la familia.
    • Anteriormente, era el hombre el único sostén posible de la familia.
    • El amor es fundamental, pero no basta como único sostén de la pareja.
    • Es el armazón del cuerpo humano y le sirve de sostén.
    • Escobas y jaladores sirvieron de sostén para los altares.
    • Así dar sostén a la misma y corregir la flaccidez cutánea existente.
    • La piel da continencia y límite, el hueso da sostén y seguridad.
    • Luego podrá intentar explicarlo con diversos argumentos lo que suele dar el sostén del delirio.
    • Esto no tiene ningún sostén jurídico y es ridículo.
    • Hoy el racismo no tiene otro sostén que la más cruda ignorancia.
    • No tendrá ningún sostén de Brasil ni de Argentina.
    • Los padrinos constituyen la principal fuente de sostén del Hogar.
    • Hoy, los chicos son sostenes de los hogares.
    • José Leonel era pescador y también el principal sostén del hogar.
    • La dermis es el tejido de sostén de la piel.
    • El colénquima es uno de los tejidos de sostén.
    • Está presente en los tejidos de sostén, membranas basales de epitelios.
    • La disposición de estos fragmentos sugiere una estructura de sostén de techado.
    • Un edificio, por caso, suele ocultar su estructura de sostén.
    • Así se refuerza la estructura de sostén.
    • Néstor ha sido el sostén político de la actual presidenta Fernández.
    • Dar marco y sostén político administrativo al programa de control de infecciones.
    • Moyano y su agrupación gremial CGT es el principal sostén político del gobierno.
    • Y que convierten a las madres en el único sostén familiar.
    • Socialmente es un aporte de empleo, sostén familiar y rentabilidad.
    • Su trabajo, fuente del único sostén familiar, implicaba esas exigencias.
    • Los futuros de trigo también encuentran sostén en variables climáticas.
    • Los contratos encontrarían sostén en la debilidad del dólar.
    • Ayer bajaron pero encuentran sostén en la situación de nuestro país.
    • La industria manufacturera es el sostén de la economía japonesa.
    • La ganadería se convirtió muy pronto en el sostén de la economía cubana.
    • Estas actividades forman parte fundamental en el sostén de las economías del Primer Mundo.
    • Como tratamiento se recomiendan medidas de sostén incluyendo lavado gástrico.
    • La música se convierte en un sostén o un contrapunto.
    • La Matute se convirtió en el sostén de la familia.
    • Los opositores se convirtieron en el sostén del titular del Central.
    • Ese objeto originario, brinda sostén al tiempo que produce desborde.
    • Impacto visual e información actualizada brindan un sólido sostén a su negocio real.
    • En este capítulo, el antisemitismo es el sostén fundamental del análisis.
    • Conocerla temprano me reafirmó en la poesía como sostén fundamental de la canción.
    • Puede involucrar el retiro de tratamiento de sostén vital.
    • La pericarditis viral por enterovirus o adenovirus requieren tratamiento de sostén.
    • Es de suma importancia que como padres podamos proporcionarles un sostén emocional seguro.
    • El hombre es un gran sostén emocional para la mujer y el bebé.
    • Obviamente que las respectivas familias son un gran sostén.
    • Los amigos pueden ser un gran sostén en este difícil trance.
    • Mi familia es mi gran sostén y los que me bancan todas.
    • El agua tiene un origen sagrado y es sostén de la vida.
    • Con los demás trabajadores, los campesinos somos el sostén de la vida.
    • Se hizo Dios en la tierra y se piensa como único sostén de vida.
    • Por ello es importante que elijas un buen sostén.
    • Utiliza a diario un buen sostén y de tu talla.
    • Ello atestiguaba que la clase obrera era el principal sostén del gobierno popular.
    • Actúa como sostén del impopular gobierno filipino.
    • Es esa estructura, apenas reciclada, la que hoy funciona como principal sostén del Gobierno.
    • No tiene sostén financiero sin acrecentar los tributos.
    • Plan de sostén financiero de la Iglesia Adventista del Séptimo Día.
    • Y TG Group traería dicho sostén financiero, que fue recién creado.
    • También lo ha sido para nuestros centros de adiestramiento y las unidades de sostén logístico.
    • Las facilidades portuarias eran igualmente inexistentes, lo que incluso dificultaba el sostén logístico naval de forma considerable.
    • Moyano incluso ofreció a los técnicos aeronáuticos la fuerza de su propio gremio en caso de que necesitaran sostén logístico.
    • La opresión de las mujeres es un sostén del sistema capitalista.
    • Es el sostén del sistema y carece de autocrítica.
    • Es también el fenómeno fundamental de sostén del sistema de Libre Mercado.
    • Por esta razón nunca contó con el sostén homogéneo de la clase obrera.
    • Ambos cuentan con el sostén de nuestras mesas de ayuda técnica y pedagógica.
    • Pero no cuentan con el necesario sostén presupuestario que aseguraría su continuidad y expansión.
    • Comúnmente se dice que el padre es el sostén de la casa.
    • Concreté mi ideal; soy uno de los sostenes de la casa.
    • Mi hermano era el sostén de la casa, el que nos orientaba.
    • Todas las letras y números de los sostenes puede parecer confuso.
    • Ya que con el sostén no lo podían decir.
    • Una franela ancha para que mis senos sin sostén pudieran moverse libremente.
    • Había podido retener este sostén a través de sus varias actividades.
    • Traerá un cargador para el coche y un sostén.
    • El amor como fundamento y la espada como sostén.
    • Este plan debe ser un sostén para los que vengan.
    • Sin ese sostén afectivo, lo demás es anécdota.
    • Hay buen sostén cefálico, no se sostiene en sedente.
    • Mujeres que quemaron sus sostenes, en dos sentidos.
    • Por este motivo se proyectó el mecanismo de un precio mínimo sostén.
    • Para evitar molestias, sostén tu piel firmemente con tu otra mano.
  • 2

    (económico)

    means of support

  • 3

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